history of Conservation in the US

history of Conservation in the US - History of conservation...

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Unformatted text preview: History of conservation History of conservation Timeline of US Conservation Timeline Early human settlement to European contact European settlement to 1850: The endless American Wilderness 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources 1880­1932: Early regulation and preservation 1920­1960: The “golden age” of resource management 1960­present: The modern environmental movement The North American The North American Pleistocene/Holocene 12,000­10,000 BCE Climatic shift­ warmer climate, glaciers receded Ecological shift­ redistribution of biomes, mass extinction of Earliest evidence of humans in the western hemisphere 15 of 27 large mammal genera became extinct The North American The North American Pleistocene/Holocene mass extinction Climate shift hypothesis or Overkill hypothesis Over the last 50,000 yr 33 of 45 large mammal genera became extinct most during the end of a glacial period. 15 generic level extinction occurred 11,500­10,000 BCE and coincides with the Clovis people Holocene extinctions disproportionately large body sizes 15 of 27 large mammal genera became extinct The North American The North American Pleistocene/Holocene mass extinction Multiple meteorite collisions (nuclear winter) caused fast climate change mega­fauna extinction­ Clovis people followed 15 of 27 large mammal genera became extinct Species extinction (yrs BCE) Sabre­toothed tiger­ 9,000 Giant Beaver (130­220 lbs) 10,000 Mastodons 10,000­4,500 Mammoths 10,000­8,000 American horse 10,000­ 9,000 American lion 10,000 The North American The North American Pleistocene/Holocene mass extinction Native Americans and the “New Native Americans and the “New World” Wilderness and race Humanized landscapes Native Americans had strong ecological effects Effects were blurred by population declines A “rebounded” landscape? Timeline of US Conservation Timeline Early human settlement European contact European settlement to 1850: The endless American Wilderness 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources 1880­1932: Early regulation and preservation 1920­1960: The “golden age” of resource management 1960­present: The modern environmental movement European settlement to 1850: The endless European settlement to 1850: The endless eastern wilderness ? The endless wilderness The endless wilderness Extirpated in the east The endless American Wilderness The endless American Wilderness Extirpated in the east Eastern Elk Eastern Elk Eastern states with introduced Rocky Mountain populations KY, TN, NC, VA, WV, PA, MI, WI, Conservation in the US Conservation in the US In the US “wildlife resources are owned by no one and are held in trust by the government for the benefit of present and future generations” (Organ and Batcheller, 2009) The “Public Trust Doctrine” is the foundation of wildlife conservation in the US Conservation in the US Conservation in the US Public Trust Doctrine State ownership was nearly the downfall of US wildlife conservation The age of Market hunting (ended early 1900) 120 United States Population 1790­1920 United States Population 1790­1920 100 Total US pop. millions 80 60 40 20 0 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 Year 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources Era of overexploitation of wildlife in the United States 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources Timber and forest resources (domestic use and export) Naval stores economic mainstay in the southeast e.g., turpentine, rosin, pitch, tar All products derived from pine sap 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources Timber and forest resources (domestic use and export) The Timber Barons Industrial timber started in northeastern states Moved west as resources were exhausted Came south after Civil War and the end of reconstruction 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources The Timber Barons Industrial timber started in northeastern states Moved west as resources were exhausted Came south after Civil War and the end of reconstruction From “Unregulated” exploitation to early From “ regulation and preservation By the late 1880s problems were obvious Once common and useful species were extirpated Extinction seemed likely Forests were not regenerating Activities were changing landscapes “Conservation”& Preservation John Muir 1838­1914 An early and very influential conservationist Preservation of wilderness Helped preserve Yosemite, Sequoia Founded the Sierra Club 1892 Mission statement 1. “To explore, enjoy, and protect the wild places of the earth” Preservation Conservation Conservation in the US Use/conserve Use/enhance The Forest Service The Forest Service preservation and conservation of forest resources 1876­ Congress USDA assess forests in US 1881­ Division of Forestry The Forest Reserve Act 1891­ authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves" 1901­ Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry 1905­ The Transfer Act transferred the management of forest reserves from the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the USDA Forest Service Reference Map of Reference Map of N ational Forests and Grasslands of the United States preservation as conservation 1872 ‑ Yellowstone National Park: first federal park for perpetual conservation. The National Park Service The National Park Service 1916 President Woodrow Wilson created the National Park Service (NPS) US Fish and Wildlife Service US Fish and Wildlife Service enhancing wildlife resources 1903­ President Theodore Roosevelt established Pelican Island in Florida as the first National Wildlife Refuge 1939­ moved from the US Department Agriculture to the Department of Interior Mission­ conserve, protect and enhance fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people Preservation Conservation in the US in Use/conserve Use/enhance The romantics The romantics The Romantic Sensibility and Scale The Romantic Sensibility and Scale (The Stommel Diagram) ...
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