12-hydrology - Lecture 12 23 February Landform Geography...

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Landform Geography: Hydrology Lecture 12: 23 February Lecture outline: 1. Introduction: special characteristics of water 2. Hydrologic Cycle: movement between air-ocean-surface 3. Water Balance Thursday: Finish Hydrology and Karst (Chapter 17) People and the Environment Oceans Becoming More Acidic (p. 266) ; Thawing Permafrost in Alaska (p. 272); Subsidence from Groundwater Extraction (p. 284) Focus – The Aral Sea and Lake Chad (p. 276)
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Introduction Underground Water Oceans Permanent Ice Surface Water Ground Water
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Introduction: Hydrologic Figure 6.7
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Introduction Three phases Liquid High surface tension (‘sticky’) Universal solvent (attracted to other polar chemicals) Gas (water vapor) Solid (ice) Figure 6.5 Exchange of latent (“hidden”) heat energy Evaporation – storage of latent heat – cooling effect Condensation – release of latent heat – warming effect
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Introduction These percentages are relatively constant. One major exception is…? This is critical to the hydrologic cycle Figure 9.1
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Series of storage areas interconnected by Hydrologic Cycle Figure 6.7
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Series of storage areas interconnected by Hydrologic Cycle Figure 9.2 FYI: Advection – horizontal air movement Convection – vertical air
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Hydrologic Cycle 1) Surface-to-Air Movement Evaporation dominates 86% from oceans 14% from land surfaces A lot of water around equator – High potential for evaporation
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Hydrologic Cycle 1) Surface-to-Air Evaporation dominates 86% from oceans 14% from land surfaces Evaporation + Transpiration (def. vegetation to atmosphere
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