After Class - Hetherington, E.M. (1998) part 2

After Class - Hetherington, E.M. (1998) part 2 - 1995;...

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1995; Hetherington et al., 1985). Although there is a marked increase in income for divorced mothers follow- ing remarriage, conflicts over finances, child rearing, and family relations remain potent problems in stepfamilies (Bray & Berger, 1993; Hetherington, 1993; Hethering- ton & Jodl, 1994). The economic improvement conferred by remarriage is not reflected in the improved adjustment of children in stepfamilies, and the new stresses associ- ated with remarriage often counter the benefits associated with increased income (Amato & Booth, 1991; Bray & Berger, 1993; Cherlin & Furstenberg, 1994; Demo & Acock, 1996; Forgatch et al., 1995; Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992; Hetherington & Jodl, 1994). Parental Distress and the Adjustment to Divorce and Remarriage Investigators taking the parental distress perspective pro- pose that stressors affect children's adjustment through parental distress and diminished well-being (Bank, Dun- can, Patterson, & Reid, 1993; Forgatch et al., 1995; Lo- renz et al., 1996; Simons & Beaman, 1996; Simons, Bea- man, Conger, & Chao, 1992; Simons & Johnson, 1996). In this view, it is the parents' response to stress, rather than the stress itself, that is most salient for children's adjustment. Signs of diminished parental well-being and dis- tress, including anger, anxiety, depression, loneliness, im- pulsivity, feelings of being externally controlled, and emotional lability, may emerge or increase in the immedi- ate aftermath of divorce (Hetherington, 1989, 1993; Pearlin & Johnson, 1977). In addition, newly remarried parents are often depressed or preoccupied as they cope with the challenges of their new family life (Hethering- ton & Clingempeel, 1992; Hetherington & Jodl, 1994). The mental health of parents in divorced and remarried families is related to children's adjustment through di- minished competence in their parenting (Clarke-Stew- art & Hayward, 1996; Forgatch et al., 1995; Hethering- ton, 1993; Lorenz et al., 1996; Simons, 1996). The stresses associated with marital transitions place both residential and nonresidential parents at risk not only for psychological disorders (Hetherington, 1989, 1991b; Kitson & Morgan, 1990; Stack, 1989; Travato & Lauris, 1989) but also for disruption in immune system functioning (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1988) and concomitant increased rates of illness and morbidity, which are nota- ble in divorced adults, especially in men (Burman & Margolin, 1992; Hu & Goldman, 1990; Riessman & Ger- stel, 1985). Nonresidential fathers engage in more health- compromising and impulsive behaviors, such as alcohol consumption, than do fathers in any other family type (Umberson, 1987; Umberson & Williams, 1993) and are overrepresented among suicides and homicides (Bloom, Asher, & White, 1978). Although depression remains higher in divorced women than in nondivorced women, by two years after divorce, women show less depression and more psycho- logical well-being than do those who remain in conflict- ridden marriages with husbands who undermine their dis- cipline and feelings of competence. The well-being of both men and women increases after the formation of a mutually caring, intimate relationship, such as a remar- riage (Hetherington, 1993). Most parents do adapt to their
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After Class - Hetherington, E.M. (1998) part 2 - 1995;...

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