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Chapter 13 Notes - Chapter 13 Crisis and...

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Chapter 13 Crisis and Renaissance (1340-1492) I. Crises A. The Great Famine 1. 1315-1322 2. human causes: overpopulation, primitive farming technology, ravages of farms by war (e.g. between England and Scotland) 3. Other causes: climate (exceptionally rainy weather) 4. Effects: hunger, disease, death (especially urban areas, losing 5-10% of population) B. The Black Death 1. 1346-1353 2. Biological causes: a disease, probably plague, that was highly contagious and that attacked an already weakened population 3. Continued to attack every 10 years or so throughout 14 th century 4. Effect: 1/3 to ½ population of Europe wiped out; but those who remained profited 5. Measures to combat the crises a. Prayers, penance, flagellants b. In Italy: city quarantines c. Blaming and killing Jews d. Peasants an workers negotiated better terms; landlords diversified production e. A sea of wealth—what to do? Buy luxuries, found universities f. Preoccupation with death, but also delight in pleasure of life g. An epidemic of marriages C. The Hundred Years’ War 1. 1337-1452 2. by 1337, English king had hardly and territory in France 3. but English king Edward III claimed the throne of France a. mother Isabella was rightful heir to France but was overlooked because she was a woman and therefore crown went to Phillip VI 4. England nearly won—Battle of Agincourt (1415): England takes over most of France (with help from the new Duchy of Burgundy) 5. Joan of Arc saved the day for France a. The French might well have won the war anyway
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b. She led French to victory at the battle of Orleans (1429) c.
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