HISTORY OF CORRECTIONS
- physical pain of somesort; often in the
form of mutilation, branding, whipping, and tourture, has been
commonplace, being used for a variety of punitive purposes;
was a big feature of ancient civilizations.
- charging offenders with fees and
- the age of enlightenment- a new ideology that
began to emerge during the 18
century; it was a reform
movement that stressed that dignity and imperfections of the
human condition; it recognized the harshness of criminal law
and procedure; and it fought against the cruelty of many
punishments and conditions of confinement.
- a wide variety of institutions
including: community residential centers, jail (typically local
facilities run by the county for those serving short sentences
usually less than one year), reformatories, penal institutions,
juvenile schools, ranches, camps, homes, and halfway houses.
Prisons and penitentiaries are typically run by the state and
offenders spend more than one year in a federal or state prison.
often consisted of a single room or two ina
castle, a market house, or the gaoler’s own dwelling; was an
English jail that could be any secure place such as a cave or a
warehouse etc; conditions were abominable, and inmates were
abused and exploited by their keepers; a
abandoned ship anchored permanently in harbors and rivers
throughout the british isles; inmates were often chained in
irons; hulks were overcrowded and dirty, and they quickly
degenerated into human garbage dumps.
-In these places of confinement, prisoners were mized
together (adult and juvenile, males and females,
hardened criminals and first time offenders etc).
-There was no state responsibility for health, safety,
-It was basically determinant on survival of the fittest.
- “houses of correction”
Walnut Streeet Jail
- was a both a prison and a workhouse that
extended on some two acres of land; those convicted of the
most serious crimes were put into solitary confinement without
labor; those charged with less serious crimes worked together
large stone structure at tasks (such as shoemaking,
carpentry, weaving, tailoring, washing etc.); women were not
given wages, nor were charged for their maintenance;
throughout the 1970’s the Walnut Street Jail was considered a
model prison but in the beginning of the 19
acclaimed jail began to deteriorate, primarily because of
overcrowding. Work activity had been discontinued, discipline
had broken down, and riots were common.
**William Penn & the Quakers
- developed a more humane
system that forbid torture; imprisonment at hard labor and
moderate flogging with restitution.
The Separate System