Crim Review Sheet for Final

Crim Review Sheet - CHAPTER 14 HISTORY OF CORRECTIONS Corporal punishment physical pain of somesort often in the form of mutilation branding

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CHAPTER 14 HISTORY OF CORRECTIONS Corporal punishment - physical pain of somesort; often in the form of mutilation, branding, whipping, and tourture, has been commonplace, being used for a variety of punitive purposes; was a big feature of ancient civilizations. Financial punishment - charging offenders with fees and assessments. Enlightenment - the age of enlightenment- a new ideology that began to emerge during the 18 th century; it was a reform movement that stressed that dignity and imperfections of the human condition; it recognized the harshness of criminal law and procedure; and it fought against the cruelty of many punishments and conditions of confinement. Correctional Facilities - a wide variety of institutions including: community residential centers, jail (typically local facilities run by the county for those serving short sentences usually less than one year), reformatories, penal institutions, juvenile schools, ranches, camps, homes, and halfway houses. Prisons and penitentiaries are typically run by the state and offenders spend more than one year in a federal or state prison. Gaols/hulks - a gaol often consisted of a single room or two ina castle, a market house, or the gaoler’s own dwelling; was an English jail that could be any secure place such as a cave or a warehouse etc; conditions were abominable, and inmates were abused and exploited by their keepers; a hulk was an abandoned ship anchored permanently in harbors and rivers throughout the british isles; inmates were often chained in irons; hulks were overcrowded and dirty, and they quickly degenerated into human garbage dumps. -In these places of confinement, prisoners were mized together (adult and juvenile, males and females, hardened criminals and first time offenders etc). -There was no state responsibility for health, safety, and welfare. -It was basically determinant on survival of the fittest. Penitentiary - “houses of correction” Walnut Streeet Jail - was a both a prison and a workhouse that extended on some two acres of land; those convicted of the most serious crimes were put into solitary confinement without labor; those charged with less serious crimes worked together ina large stone structure at tasks (such as shoemaking, carpentry, weaving, tailoring, washing etc.); women were not given wages, nor were charged for their maintenance; throughout the 1970’s the Walnut Street Jail was considered a model prison but in the beginning of the 19 th century, this acclaimed jail began to deteriorate, primarily because of overcrowding. Work activity had been discontinued, discipline had broken down, and riots were common. **William Penn & the Quakers - developed a more humane system that forbid torture; imprisonment at hard labor and moderate flogging with restitution. The Separate System
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course CRIM-C 100 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '11 term at Indiana.

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Crim Review Sheet - CHAPTER 14 HISTORY OF CORRECTIONS Corporal punishment physical pain of somesort often in the form of mutilation branding

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