Criminal Justice Exam 2 Outline

Criminal Justice Exam 2 Outline - CHAPTER 6 HISTORY &...

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CHAPTER 6 HISTORY & POLICE History of Policing Mutual Pledge - a system that organized the country at seceral levels: Tithings - the lowest level made of families of 10 grouped together who assumed mutual reponsbility for the acts of their members. Hundred - the next level comprised of 10 tithings or 100 families that made grouped together into the hundred; hundreds were under the charge of a constable ; hundreds within a specific geographical area were combined to form shires (counties) and these administrative units were governed by a shire-reeve (sheriff-the first formal law enforcement agents to appear). Frankpledge – traced to around 850 AD; males over 12 formed tithings-tithings were formed into ‘hundreds’; swore to apprehend wrongdoers; gave way to the parish constable-watch system; supervised by the reeve of the shire (sheriff). characteristics - watch and ward (posse comitatus- ‘power of the community’); hue and cry; assize of arms-required to have a weapon is member was over the age of 12. Statute of Winchester -made sure everyone was doing what they were supposed ot be doing; created in 1285 it formalized and codified the Frankpledge System; established the constable position. With the industrial revolution, crime dramatically increased; The invention of gin in 1720 created tremendous turmoil because of the increase in volatitly of alcohol- more crimes were commited that were alcohol related. Henry Fielding - credited with laying the foundation for the first modern police force; formed a small, unofficial investigative division that was the first organized force ever used against criminals in England. Sir Robert Peel -credited with the establishment of the first professional police force; he based his ideas upon those of Patrick Calhoun and drew up the first police bill that was ultimately passed by parliament- the Metropolitan Police Act (1829). Bow Street Runners -London tries policing- constables of Henry Fielding’s first modern police force these street runners were not paid as police officers, but they were entitled to the standard thief- takers’ reward. Thief Takers - private detectives who were paid by the Crown on a piecework basis. Anyone could be a thief taker; the thief takers had no official status as police and no more authority than private citizens; they received rewards for apprehending criminals; had emerged in response to the problem of highway robbery. Issue— thief takers often became thief makers they would induce youngsters to commit crimes and then have another their-taker arrest the youth in the midst of the offense; this system generally created more crime than it suppressed. Metropolitan Police Act - established in 1829-Sir Robert Peel is Home Secretary; created a centralized agency with responsibility for both preventing crime and apprehending offenders, thus, modem policing came into being; created the first organized police force of over 1,000 men; the first real recognition of policing as we know it. Characteristics of English and American police forces.
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course CRIM-C 100 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '11 term at Indiana.

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Criminal Justice Exam 2 Outline - CHAPTER 6 HISTORY &...

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