Perception and Individual Decision Making

Perception and Individual Decision Making - Perception and...

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Perception and Individual Decision Making Decision Making: The process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of action to meet the demands of a situation; the response to a problem and/or an opportunity. Group Decision Making: Group Individual Creativity Speed Acceptance of Decision Efficiency Accuracy? Group Decision Making – Conformity: The adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Asch Experiments Group Decision Making – Groupthink Definition o A mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. Symptoms o Overestimate the group – illusion of vulnerability, belief in inherent morality of the group o Closed mindedness – rationalization of group’s opinion; discounting of conflicting ideas from inside and outside the group
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o Pressure toward conformity – self-censorship; direct pressure to members who disagree (e.g., scorn, ridicule); protect the group from alternative views (mindguarding); illusion of unanimity Promoting Functional Conflict/Avoiding Groupthink: Promote a culture of healthy dissent – foster an open climate of discussion Introduce planned conflict o Assign members role as critical evaluators – urge group members to think independently o Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives o Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate o Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action. Types of Decisions: Programmed o Repetitive and routine o Use decision rules Non-programmed o More complex and non-routine situations o Requires problem-solving A Rational Decision Process for Non-Programmed Decisions Rational Decision Process:
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1. Define the problem or opportunity 2. Identify decision criteria and weight the criteria 3. Develop alternatives 4. Rate each alternative against each criterion 5. Select the optimal/best alternative 6. Implement the selected alternative 7. Evaluate decision outcomes Bounded Rationality Intuition: a non-conscious process created from distilled experience – usually engages emotion Least rational way of making decisions Not rational, not usually correct Use as supplement with evidence and good judgment Influences on the Decision Making Process Decision Making Styles Value orientation
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o Reflects the extent to which an individual focuses on either task and technical concerns or people and social concerns when making decisions Tolerance for ambiguity o Extent to which a person has a high need for structure or control in his life Decision Making Styles Chart Influences on the Decision Making Process Heuristic are shortcuts that people use in decision making to reduce information process demand. Perception:
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Perception and Individual Decision Making - Perception and...

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