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Unformatted text preview: WWII A. Expansionist designs of fascist regimes started WWII 1. Strict terms of Treaty of Versailles-ended WWI 2. Depression of 1930s created terms under which fascism and extreme nationalism arose in Germany and Italy B. US maintained its isolationist policies 1. US sympathized with the Allies 2. American isolationism shifted first to indirect involvement and then to full involvement after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec 7, 1941 3. War effort brought the American economy out of the Great Depression a. Blacks and women played larger roles in war effort 4. As the war ended, relations between the US and USSR became increasingly hostile a. Jockey for power: discussion between Allies and how to divide and rebuild Europe after Germany fell 5. When the US dropped atomic bomb on cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki a. Changed the nature of war-a country had the capacity to destroy vast regions with a single bomb b. The bomb droppings presaged the Cold War arms race C. Road to War in Europe 1. Adolf Hitler took power and installed a fascist regime in 1933 a. Germany had intense bitterness and resentment from the punitive Treaty of Versailles b. 1922-Benito Mussolini rose to power in Italy c. Mussolini and Hitler used extreme nationalist rhetoric with an aggressive desire to expand 2. October 1935, Italian forces invaded Ethiopia (gaining control of African nation by May 1936) 3. 1935, Hitler announced plans for German troops to re-occupy Rhineland which was demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles 4. October 1936-Italy and Germany forces formed an alliance-Rome-Berlin Axis a. March 1938-Austria joined the alliance b. Hitler announced Anschluss-union between Germany and Austria and marched to Vienna 5. September 1938-Munich Pact-when British and French leaders compromised to grant Germany with Sudetenland to Germany in an attempt to appease Hitler and avoid war because Hitler wanted Czech Sudetenland a. During 1930s, Britain and France responded to fascist aggression with inaction hoping that Germany would cease its expansionary actions of its own b. But German invaded Czech in March 1938 and Poland in September 1939 o Two days after Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany (because they honored their treaty with Poland) 6. US-isolationism and antiwar sentiments a. Neutrality Acts (1935 and 1937)-made arm sales to warring countries illegal and forbade American citizens to travel aboard the ships of belligerent nations b. FDR supported the acts half-heartedly; found it impossible to fight the will of the majority o Helped defeat the 1938 proposal for a constitutional amendment- Ludlow Amendment-would require national referendum on any declaration of war not sparked by a direct attack c. America responded to the fascist states-weak and limited o Some saw them dangerous o Wavering isolationism-early/mid 1930s-involvement with China 1931-Japan invaded Manchuria 1937-began launching attacks on the remainder of China to build an Asian empire US felt threatened-so US refused to recognize the Japanese...
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