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Rotational Energy Lab Report

Rotational Energy Lab Report - ROTATIONAL ENERGY VELOCITIES...

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ROTATIONAL ENERGY, VELOCITIES, AND PERCENT ERROR MICHAELA CUI 22 JANUARY 2007 PARTNERS: JON LANE, TARA SPARGO, MARK RICHARDS, KYLE JENKS
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SUMMARY: The goal of this experiment is to predict the final velocity of a ball rolling down a ramp and to evaluate the error associated with stopwatches and photogates. Three different objects - a solid ball, a hollow ball, and a cylinder – were rolled down two ramps of different angle and timed by stopwatches and photogates. During the solid ball trials, the percent error of the stopwatches ranged from -30.66% to 32.58% reaching a most accurate percent error of 1.18%. The photogate percent errors for the same trials ranged from 2.46% to 29.61%. See the Table 1 below for theoretical values for the final velocity of objects rolling down each ramp. For the hollow ball trials, percent error of the stopwatches ranged from -16.75% to 54.20% with a most accurate percent error of -0.11%. On the other hand, the photogate percent errors ranged from 0.01% to 31.88%. The cylinder trial percent errors ranged from 9.35% to105.71% for the stopwatches, and 16.38% to 59.60% for the photogates. The cylinder trials produced the most inaccurate experimental results due to the cylinder’s irregular shape. For all trials, the higher ramp – 72.27 o for the solid and hollow balls and 69.7037 o for the cylinder – produced the least accurate results. The smaller value for time accounts for this increased error. Other sources of error were the path of travel of the rolling object, the value of k used in rotational energy calculations, and various random error. Table 1 Theoretical Velocities (m/s) Stopwatch Distance* Photogate Distance High Ramp Low Ramp High Ramp Low Ramp Solid Ball 4.7766 2.5698 4.4290 2.5588 Hollow Ball 4.3869 2.3556 4.0592 2.3452 Cylinder 2.6873 1.5319 2.6521 1.5118 *Includes the measurement of the radius of the object.
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ABSTRACT: In this lab experiment, the final velocities of objects rolling down a ramp will be calculated and found experimentally, and the errors of two timing methods – photogates and stopwatches – will be evaluated. A ramp will be created using a table with one set of legs propped up higher than the other set as to create an angle. Two angles will be used to further test the objects set forth. Three objects - a hollow ball such as a ping pong ball, a solid metal ball, and a cylinder – will be tested in this experiment. One photogate will be placed a measured distance above the bottom of the ramp, and the second will be placed at the very end as shown in the diagram above. The ball will be let go to travel down the table and through the
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photogates. The photogates begin timing as soon as the beam is broken, so before the trial begins, the ball must be held as close as possible to the beam without breaking it. Therefore, the radius of the ball must be taken into consideration when calculating the theoretical final velocity of the ball for the stopwatch times.
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