am21 - The Americans (Reconstruction to the 21st Century)...

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1 The Americans (Reconstruction to the 21st Century) Chapter 21: TELESCOPING THE TIMES Civil Rights CHAPTER OVERVIEW After decades of discrimination, African Americans begin a struggle for equality. They make gains against unfair laws in the South, but as the movement reaches Northern cities, gains are fewer. Section 1: Taking on Segregation MAIN IDEA Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advanced equal rights for African Americans in the 1960s. In the 1950s, social changes begun by World War II set the stage for overturning the laws that forced separate, or segregated, facilities for African Americans and whites in the South. Many African Americans had enjoyed expanded job opportunities in defense industries in the 1940s. Many more had fought in the war. They returned home determined to fight for their own freedom. Lawyers for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) won cases that weakened segregation. The biggest victory came in the 1954 school desegregation case Brown v. Board of Education. The Supreme Court ruled that separate educational facilities were “inherently unequal.” The segregated schools were declared unconstitutional. Within a year after Brown, more than 500 school districts had desegregated. But in some areas, leaders vowed resistance. The issue reached a crisis in Arkansas. The governor ordered the National Guard to prevent nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock’s Central High School. A federal judge ordered the governor to admit the students. When he refused, President Eisenhower sent federal troops to allow the students to enter the school. Meanwhile, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957. It gave the attorney general greater power to push desegregation in schools.
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2 Another drive had arisen over segregation of city buses. An African-American woman named Rosa Parks had refused to yield her seat to a white man, as the laws of
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am21 - The Americans (Reconstruction to the 21st Century)...

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