Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds - Organic Compounds functional...

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Unformatted text preview: Organic Compounds- functional groups (determine how the molecules react) Alkane Alkene- at least one double bond Alkyne- at least one triple bond, linear carbons Aromatic- six carbon ring with alternating double bonds Alcohol- OH Phenol- OH with phenol gruop Ether Alcohols • CH3-OH (methyl alcohol) simplest o Poisonous, two tablespoons can cause blindness, even death o • CH3CH2-OH (ethyl alcohol) o Ingredient of alcoholic beverages o Not as poisonous but still toxic Det of liver, cardiovascular system, loss of memory, death Half of fatal car accidents FAS The most abused drug in US Carbon double bonded to O is carbonyl group • Aldehyde • Ketone • Carboxylic acid • Ester • Butyric acid: strong unpleasant odors, rancid butter and body odors • Methyl butyrate: fruity odors and tastes, flavoring in cakes, candies, perfumes apples • Pentyl acetate: banana • More functional groups: nitrogen containing organics Amide Amine Ethylamine Amphetamine: stimulant drug Cadaverine: odor of decaying flesh Amides • Synthetic and natural polymers o Nylons o Proteins, hair, silk, skin What is the chemical formula of amphetamine? Polymers (poly: many, mer: unite) • Large molecules made up of long chains of atoms covalently bonded together • The molecular chain in polymers consists of basic subunits, each one called a monomer • Synthetic o Polyethylene o PVC o Nylon • Natural o Proteins o RNA o DNA Synthetic • Carbon o In nature, carbon atoms combine with each other to form chains, rings, mesh-like networks, and three-dimensional structures Diamond Graphite • Polymerization reaction o Formation of polyethylene Ethene (ethylene) Initiating free-radical catalyst (speeds up reaction by a lot) Try to steal electron from chemical bond Unpaired electron Encounter another ethene with unpaired electron, Chain forming • Addition polymerization: monomers add to the growing polymer chain in such a way that the product contains all the atoms of the starting material o Polyethylene o N=500-10000, chain length • Design strategies o Length Controlled by the relative rates of initiation, propagation, and termination o Three-dimensional arrangement of chains Parallel- very hard Determines elasticity Neighboring chains may intertwine o Branching o Chemical composition of monomer units o Bonding between chains Chains are connected by covalent bonds. Chains cannot move or slip, resulting in greater rigidity o Orientation of monomer units with chain Head-to-tail Head-to-head Polyamides • Proteins: natural polymers formed by condensation polymerization of amino acids; make up human hair, skin, muscle, and also animal products like silk or wool Plastics: Sources of raw materials • Petroleum feedstocks in crude oil Where do plastics go • 75% in landfills • 15% incinerated 10% recycled ...
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