Exam 3 Lecture Review Sheet

Exam 3 Lecture Review Sheet - Psych 240 Exam 3 Review Sheet...

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Psych 240 Exam 3 Review Sheet Lecture 15: Language Language levels: different levels in the hierarchy: phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, sentences Phonemes : (lowest level)different in different languages; smallest units of sound in a language; around 40 in English, range from 11 to 60 across languages, out of 100 total to choose from. Different phonemes in different languages; tonal languages (Chinese uses tones to distinguish words); rules of order: rules how sounds can be combined-ex) Fpibs is not ok, Pritos is ok if though it is not a real world, tlitos is not ok. Morphemes : refer to the smallest units of meaning in a language—could be smaller units than the words itself. Ex) strang-er-s; prefixes, suffixes, roots (-ed,-s, syn add to roots); can be entire words; 50-80,000 morphemes; may not stand alone (teams/steam—adding S at end conveys plural—only at end of nouns, if you put it first it doesn’t mean multiple teams, its creating a new word; one morpheme in steam, two in teams); rules of language say how that can be combined— ex) for many verbs, appropriate to make past tense by adding –ed, but not for all, such as go. “atoms: of meaning—can be combined in multiple ways to form words in a language Words : are in the phrases; combinations of morphemes, could be just one or multiple. Adults know several hundred thousand words. Follow specific rules for how morphemes can be combined Phrases : the strangers (noun phrase) talked to the players (verb phrase); organized groupings of words Sentences (highest level) the strangers talked to the players Syntax : rules that determine word order ( French Bottle) (Smells) (The French) (Bottle) (Smells) Sentence meaning : phrase structure description; typically use sounds to determine what sentence you want to portray; related to concepts and categories (LTM); words represent or symbolize concepts; words must be grouped into phrases; appropriate meaning assigned not just by words in isolation, but by relationships between words Problems with phrase structure approach to meaning : Ambiguities remain: one phrase can mean different things Ex) the shooting of the hunters was terrible—they were terrible shooters, or there was a hunting accident Different phrases can mean the same thing Ex) the boy hit the ball Ex) the boy was hit by the ball Chomsky : set stage for contemporary study of language. Studied how words translate into meaning. Went beyond “phrase structure descriptions”; different phrase structures can mean the same thing; same phrase structure can mean different things; tried to go beyond basic phrase structures, introduced surface and deep Surface structure : the phrase structure of the utterance you are hearing right now; the phrase structure of the current thing you are reading ex) the ball was hit by the ball has complicated surface, but simple deep; all the legal phrase structures—phrase structure grammar and - 1 -
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transformational grammar deep structure : a canonical phrase structure that has the same meaning as the surface structure;
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Exam 3 Lecture Review Sheet - Psych 240 Exam 3 Review Sheet...

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