exam2text-articles - EXAM 2 TEXT/ARTICLES Chapter 5 Recall...

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EXAM 2 TEXT/ARTICLES Chapter 5 Recall vs. recognition: (expressive vs. receptive) Recall : produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory (fill in the blank and essays) Recognition : select or identify an item as one you’ve learned previously (MC and T/F) Implicit vs. explicit Explicit (declarative) : participants engage in conscious recollection Implicit (non declarative) : we use info but are not consciously aware that we are doing so (ex: reading-remembering stuff from other chapters, how to read, etc). Priming helps with implicit Three stores model: Sensory store : capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief periods Short - term store : capable of storing info for somewhat longer periods but also of relatively limited capacity Long - term store : of very large capacity, capable of storing info for very long periods, perhaps even indefinitely Sensory store : initial repository of much info that eventually enters short and long term stores Iconic store : a discrete visual sensory register that holds info for very short periods. Information is stored in the form of icons; info fades rapidly from iconic storage Sperling's experiment : addressed the ? of how much info we can encode in a single, brief glance at a set of stimuli flashed an array of letters and numbers on a screen for 50 milliseconds; participants asked to report identity and location of as many of symbols they could recall Partial report procedure : participants need to report only part of what they see; dramatically changed how much participants could recall Short term store : holds memories for matters of seconds and occasionally up to a couple of minutes Chunks, 7+/-2 : our immediate (short-term) memory capacity or a wide range of items appears to be about 7 items +- 2; if we chunk together a string of 20 letters/#s into 7 meaningful items, we ca remember them Long Term Store : keep memories that stay with us long periods of time, perhaps indefinitely Levels of processing: postulates that memory does not comprise three or any specific number of separate stores but rather varies a long a continuous dimension in terms of depth of encoding. There are theoretically an infinite number of LOP at which items can be encoded Self-reference effect : Participants show very high levels of recall when asked to relate words meaningful to themselves by determining whether the words describe them Working memory : holds only the most recetly activated, or conscious, portion of long term memory, and it moves these activated elements into and out of brief, temporary memory storage Baddeley’s model : synthesizes the working memory with the LOP framework. Views of LOP as an extension of working memory model 1
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Visuospatial sketchpad : sketchpad briefly holds some visual images Phonological loop : briefly holds inner speech for verbal comprehension and for acoustic rehearsal Central executive : both coordinates attentional activities and governs response Multiple memory systems
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exam2text-articles - EXAM 2 TEXT/ARTICLES Chapter 5 Recall...

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