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Psych 240 Test 2 Thad q&a

Psych 240 Test 2 Thad q&a - Psych 240 Test 2 Q&A >...

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Psych 240 Test 2: Q&A > i mistyped the last question, i see that rehearsal is on the guide, but in terms of transfer from STM to LTM, how detailed should we know it, or just focus on consolidation. Just know that consolidation is the process of integrating new information into the existing information you have stored away in memory. You should also know that temporally-graded retrograde amnesia suggests that consolidation can continue for a few years. > The other is I'm really confused about what a double dissociation is. Could you briefly explain it? THANKS!! :) Put as concisely as possible: One manipulation affects dependent variable 1 (DV1) but not dependent variable 2 (DV2), while another manipulation affects DV2 but not DV1. Typically, the dependent variables correspond to behavior on two separate tasks, but if we describe it in terms of dependent variables then it's easier to see how the neuroimaging double dissociations fit in. When two dependent variables (or tasks) are doubly dissociable we can infer that they depend on (at least partially) independent cognitive or neural systems. Double dissociations are most frequently discussed with respect to brain damaged patients. In this case, the manipulations refer to damage to different parts of the brain and the dependent variables refer to behavioral performance on certain cognitive tasks. For example, the brain damage in HM (manipulation 1) affects performance on long-term memory tasks (DV1) but not working memory tasks (DV2) while the damage in patient KF (manipulation 2) affects working memory tasks (DV2) but not long-term memory tasks (DV1). We therefore infer that long-term memory tasks and working memory tasks depend on independent systems. We've also seen examples of behavioral double dissociations. For example, changing the rate of presentation (manipulation 1) affects the primacy effect in serial recall (DV1) but not the recency effect (DV2). Conversely, making people count backwards by threes after studying a list of items (manipulation 2) affects the recency effect (DV2) but not the primacy effect. We therefore conclude that the primacy and recency effects depend on independent
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underlying systems (probably long-term memory and working memory respectively). Finally, we've seen examples of double dissociations in neuroimaging experiments. For example, manipulating demands on verbal working memory (manipulation 1) affects neural activity in the left hemisphere (DV1) but not the right hemisphere (DV2). Conversely, manipulating demands on visuospatial working memory (manipulation 2) affects neural activity in the right hemisphere (DV2) but not the left (DV1). We therefore conclude that the two hemispheres (more specifically, the parts of the two hemispheres that are activated in these tasks) are performing independent functions (probably left for verbal working memory and right for visuospatial working memory).
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