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Unformatted text preview: Physiological Capacity and Physiological Capacity and Performance Across the LifespanMetabolic differences between Metabolic children & adults1. 2. 3. 4. Lower glycogen stores Lower ATP stores Fewer glycolytic enzymes Fewer mitochondrial enzymesWhy? LESS MUSCLE MASS! Cardiovascular differences between children & adults1. 1. 2. 1. 2. Higher HR Lower stroke volume Lower cardiac output More blood flow to working muscles Less hemoglobin in blood21.av O difference is about equalRespiratory differences between children & adults1. 2. 1. Higher minute ventilation Higher respiratory muscle fatigue Smaller lung volumesWhy? Children are smaller people. Thermoregulatory differences between children & adults1. 1. 1. Greater metabolic heat during exercise. Later onset of increased sweat production at higher relative workloads. Less responsive thirst mechanism.1.Differences in VO2max: Increases until age 1618 in males & until age 1214 in females VO2max is higher in boys than girls after age 9. 2max Female VO =8590% of males before puberty & 70% of males after pubertyAerobic Exercise Capacity in Aerobic Exercise Capacity in ChildrenChanges in VO2max are due to changes in size & body compositionAerobic Training in Children Aerobic Training in ChildrenWhat endurance training adaptations do we observe in children? Decreased resting HR Increased Sv+ Q (cardiac output) Increase in VO2max (525%) Increased lactate threshold Aerobic performance increased more than VO2max. How is this possible? Anaerobic Exercise Capacity in Anaerobic Exercise Capacity in ChildrenChildren have a lower anaerobic capacity than adults even when adjusted for lean body mass. How is this possible? Lower glycogen stores Lower glycolytic enzyme activity Lower buffering capacity They recover faster than adults after intense bouts of physical activity. How is this possible? Oxygen doesnt have to travel as farAnaerobic Exercise Capacity in ChildrenAnaerobic capacity rises during childhood & adolescence between ages 915 Anaerobic capacity peaks after puberty & into early adulthood: 1416 in females At least 20 in males Muscular Strength in Children Muscular Strength in ChildrenThere is a linear relationship between strength and age until age 1314 in males & 1416 in females. After puberty muscular strength is related to: 1. Body mass weight 2. Body composition % mass vs. muscle vs. bone 3. Testosterone male sex hormone is a steroid hormone 4. Maturation of neural pathwaysStrength Training in Children Strength Training in ChildrenShould children strength train? Recommendations for strength training and children: Supervision when lifting weights above their heads and/or using free weights Emphasis should be on form & technique, not competition 30 minute sessions!!Decreases in Exercise Capacity Decreases in Exercise Capacity During AgingAerobic & Anaerobic capacities decrease with age. What factors cause this decline? Cardiac output (Q) Aerobic power (VO2max) Muscle mass Muscular strengthAerobic capacity decreaes about 1% per year. HRmax decreases about 1 beat/year. SVmax decreases, though it can be well maintained with training. Qmax decreaseAerobic Power (VO2max) Aerobic Power (VOWith aerobic training VO2max can increase Increased mitochondrial and capillary density great oxidative capacity and O2 extractionMuscular Strength Muscular StrengthWhy is it important for adults to maintain muscular strength? posture balance coordination daily activitiesHow does muscular strength How does muscular strength change as we age? decrease by 24% per year Between 2080yrs. we lose 40% of our muscle mass. Gradual decline between 3050 yrs. Accelerated decline after 50 yrs. What causes these changes? inactivity Muscle atrophy decrease in muscle size Neural inputExercise Prescription for Older Exercise Prescription for Older AdultsThe goal of program design for older adults is to improve or maintain: 1) 1) 2) 1) 1) 2) 3) Functional capacity Muscular strength Muscular endurance Quality of life Flexibility Coordination BalanceGender Differences in Aerobic Gender Differences in Aerobic Exercise CapacityDifferences in performance cant be explained by difference in VO2max alone. 40% difference in absolute VO2max 20% difference in relative VO2max 10% difference when adjusted for lean body mass Lean body mass body mass minus fat massGender Differences in Aerobic Gender Differences in Aerobic Exercise CapacityWhat can account for the difference in VO2max between males and females when adjusted for lean body mass? RBC count Hemoglobin Heart size Lung capacityADAPTIONS ARE TO AEROBIC TRAINING ARE SIMILAR BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES ALTHOUGH THE MAGNITUDE IS GREATER IN MALES!Total work and power output is greater in males than females Differences still remain when adjusted for lean body mass. Causes of differences? Body composition Limb length (males have larger and longer limbs) ADAPTIONS ARE TO ANAEROBIC TRAINING ARE SIMILAR BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES ALTHOUGH THE MAGNITUDE IS GREATER IN MALES!Gender Differences in Anaerobic Gender Differences in Anaerobic CapacityPhysiological difference in Effect on performance femalesSmaller bodies ie: shorter limbs Less lean muscle mass in relation to fat massGender Differences in Sport Gender Differences in Sport PerformanceLower muscular strength and power Lower oxidative capacity lower VO2max (aerobic power); fewer Type II fibers lower anaerobic power Lower force production lower muscular power & strength Lower stroke volume lower cardiac output lower VO2max Less O2 carrying capacity lower av O2 diff lower VO2max Lower sweating rate during exerciseSmaller muscle fiber diameter Smaller heart Lower hemoglobin Greater reliance on circulatory adjustments than sweating for thermoregulationTABLE 12.2 YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS TABLE!...
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- Winter '11