EXAM 3 notebook review

EXAM 3 notebook review - Exam 3 for MS 230: lectures 9, 10,...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam 3 for MS 230: lectures 9, 10, 11 (not 9.5) TISSUE AND FUNCTION MUSCLE STRUCTURE Whole muscle Muscle belly: o Bundles of fascilcles- grous of fascicles o Epimysium- around the whole structure Fascicle o Bundles of fibers o Perimysium- lining around fascicles Fiber o Bundles of myofibrils o Endomysium- connective tissue sheath around muscle cells Muscle fiber (cell level) Sacrolemma- cell membrane around muscle fibers o Cell membrane o Propagates impulses Myofibrils o Sacromeres in series- end to end Sacromere: functional contractile element (generates force through molecular interactions) Actin ad myosin- when stimulated, slide past each other (caused by rotation of myosin heads) Cross-bridges: projections (heads) of myosin attach to actin (*cross-bridge mechanism: short, rest (optimum), very long (no myosin attached) Myofilaments- meat; can activate with calcium forming cross bridges and making forces o Actin (thin) o Myosin (thick fragments) Sliding Filament Theory : 1. muscle force depends on amount of overlap between thick and thin filaments 2. sacromere length indicates the amount of overlap between filaments 3. muscle force depends on sacromere length optimal length (maximum overlap): depends on overlap (based on number of cross bridges formed) shorter than optimal length and longer than optimal length (decrease force, decrease overlap) o force goes down either way (force goes down either way max. force and if not, it goes down on both sides) force-length relationship** (refer to diagram on page 2) MUSCLE LENGTH AND JOINT ANGLE : length to joint angle; shows how muscles produce force Top of curve= optimum Muscle architecture - structural classification of muscles based on fiber arrangement (muscles are packed on tendons in different arrangementsall different shapes) Always tendons at both ends FIBER ARRANGEMENT Longitudinal: long, strap-like muscle with fibers in parallel to its long axis Quadrate/Quadrilateral: four sided and flat; consists of parallel fibers on all 4 sides; on angle from tendon Fan-shaped/Triangular: fibers radiate from a narrow attachment at one end to a broad attachment at the other end Fusiform/Spindle-Shaped: rounded muscle that tapers at either end; contributes to elbow flexion Unipennate: a series of short, parallel, feather like fibers extends diagonally from side of a long tendon; *feather, short tendon Bipennate: a long central tendon with fibers extending diagonally in pairs from either side of the tendons; planar towards tendons Multipennate: several tendons are present, with fibers running diagonally between...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2011 for the course MVS 230 taught by Professor Gross during the Winter '10 term at University of Michigan.

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EXAM 3 notebook review - Exam 3 for MS 230: lectures 9, 10,...

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