Biopsychology Exam 1 review

Biopsychology Exam 1 review - Biopsychology Exam 1 Review...

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Biopsychology Exam 1 Review Biopsychology: physiology and evolution I. History of Neuroscience Early Hominids- first discovered the brain was important; 3 million year old skull has distinct cranial fractures (fractures believed to have been caused by club attacks) *they knew the brain was a vital organ Trephination- in Neolithic culture (“new stone age”); aztecs and incas o Skulls with man-made holes: sophisticated understanding of the brain even back then Healing of the hole size shows that person was living Explanations: tribal rituals (releasing demons), relieving pain (headache, mental disorders), treating skull fracture *May have linked head/brain with mental function Egyptians (about 2000 BC)- first with systematic medical records; surgeons for Egyptian army (spear and sword wounds) Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus- purchased Egyptian records in 1862 and translated in 1920 Referred to head injuries: changes in a person’s walking & treatment for head injuries *linked brain and mental function Imhotep= Father of Egyptian Medicine Egyptian medicine: blend of mythology and religion, with therapeutic practices Rubbed body for afflicted Feces rubbed on body to make it undesirable to demons Believed in “after life”: Heart records show good and evil deeds in life (heart was too important to remove it); prepared the body for life after death by storing internal organs (other than the heart) in a jar Brain was not important: removed through the nose by hooks and then discarded After death, gods weigh heart against a feather o Heavy= full of guilt and evil; fed to the Devourer 1
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o Light= free of sins; goes to heaven The Greeks: Hippocrates (460 BC-370 BC): rejected the idea that seizures were from god and demons; believed that thoughts and feelings came from the brain and only the brain Democritus (460 BC-370 BC): Hippocrates’ contemporary; taught that matter was made of an infinite number of extremely minute units (atoms) o Atoms differ in shape and different shapes=different sensations Plato (429 BC-370 BC): along with Democritus thought there was a soul with 3 parts: (intellect- related with the head/ anger, fear, and courage- associated with the heart [emotional emphasis]/ lust, greed, and desire- associated with the gut and liver) Aristotle (384 BC to 322 BC): greatest Greek “natural philosopher; believed the heart was responsible for intellect and the brain was useless (only used to cool the heart); studied over 50 different species Alexandria, Egypt (~300 BC): Ptolemies made a model “Greek” city; center for learning; Greek and Roman surgeons trained here (because Greek rulers didn't care about science) o Herophilus (335-280 BC): “Father of Anatomy”; dissected hundreds of cadaver; respected to study the biology of organisms Galen (130-200 AD): Greek who trained in Alexandria; thought that nothing should be believe beside for what is experienced o Dissected many different species (favorite= Barbery Apes) but Roman
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Biopsychology Exam 1 review - Biopsychology Exam 1 Review...

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