Biopsychology Exam 4-part 3

Biopsychology Exam 4-part 3 - Biopsychology Exam 4 Lecture...

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Biopsychology Exam 4 Lecture 20- Learning and Memory: AMNESIAS- severe impairment of memory o LEARNING: process of acquiring new information & MEMORY- storing new information o RETROGRADE AMNESIA: can’t retrieve memories prior to amnesia o ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA: can’t form new memories beginning with onset of amnesia HM- patient suffering from severe epileptic seizures, then neurosurgeon removed his anterior temporal lobes (both sides; including amygdala and hippocampus) o Short-term memory is ok (can remember a list of 7 numbers); IQ above average; forgets everything that happened 5 mins. or so before Short term memory: lasts 30 seconds; holds a small amount of information LTM: lasts for hours, weeks, years HM’s LTM impairment- due to damage to hippocampus (other patients that have damage to the amygdala don't show such severe impairments) o HM’s deficit primarily on verbal material , motor learning was ok- *reason there was such a discrepancy between him and data from animal models Animals: limited to behavioral tasks HM: when tested with STAR TRACE, showed excellent signs of motor memory formation ( procedural memory ) DECLARATIVE MEMORY: facts and information acquired through learning (memory we area aware of accessing); things you know that you can tell others (can be tested in humans because they can talk—patient HM seems unable to form new declarative memories) Patients with damage to dorsomedial thalamus=impairment in declarative memory EX: patient NA had fencing foil pushed up his nose, damaging 1 side of his thalamus and bilateral damage to mammilary bodies resulting in old ones remained intact, but couldn't form new ones Memory loss with Korsakoff’s=associated with damage to dorsomedial thalamus and mammilary bodies
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NON-DECLARATIVE MEMORY: procedural memory; memory that is demonstrated by performance, rather than a conscious recollection; things you know that you can show by doing (can be tested in other animals and humans —patient HM can form these memories like this (ex: skill of mirror tracing)) o SEMANTIC MEMORY: generalized memory, like knowing the meaning of a word o EPISODIC MEMORY: autobiographical memory, like knowing when you learned a word Deficits are associated with cortical damage (ex: frontal-parietal and parito-occipital) increase in blood flow in these regions during episodic memory BEHAVIORAL STUDIES IN RODENTS o NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: a change in behavior after exposed to a single stimuli (more basic- ex: Pavlov’s dog salivation) HABITUATION: decrease in behavioral response as stimuli is repeated (ex: Aplysia) SENSITIZATION: increase in behavioral response as stimuli is repeated (ex: drug abuse) when professor had water thrown in his face when fighting with his brother, now he knows to be scared of water getting thrown at him if he is fighting again) o ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: learning that involves relations between events o CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: initially neutral stimulus comes to predict an
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Biopsychology Exam 4-part 3 - Biopsychology Exam 4 Lecture...

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