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Lecture 9-development and hormones

Lecture 9 development and hormones

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Unformatted text preview: Neural Development • Embryonic Development • Neurogenesis • Cell migration Radial glia • Cell differentiation Cell autonomous Induction • Synapse formation Frog tectum • Cell death Neurotrophic factors • Synaptic remodeling Cortical barrels Ocular dominance Increase in human brain weight • Our brains grow during the first 5 years of life Brain Development Adult • Adult human (~ 100 billion neurons)… but we start as just one cell… the zygote start Embryonic Development Development • Development begins with fertilization of egg (sperm & egg unite = zygote) zygote) Within • Within one week, the embryo has three distinct layers distinct The • The nervous system develops from the outer layer called the ‘ectoderm’ ‘ectoderm’ Embryonic Development Cell • Cell layers thicken to a flat neural plate flat Ridges • Ridges of the ectoderm continue to thicken and the middle portion forms the neural groove groove The • The top of the neural ridge come together to form the neural tube form Neurulation (Day 18) • Ectoderm becomes nervous system • Neural plate forms • Edges fold (neural groove) • Neural tube forms Embryonic Development Anterior • Anterior portion of neural tube eventually develops into the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain Embryonic Development • Posterior tube develops into spinal cord The • The interior of the neural tube develops into the cerebral ventricles cerebral Brain Development Brain in • Brain size increases massively in utero • In 8th week, head is half the size of entire embryo Birth Brain Development Brain • Brain size also increases massively after birth after Rapid increase first 5 years Peak b/w 18 & 30 Gradual decline thereafter Stages of Cellular Activity What • W...
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