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Unformatted text preview: emical that ‘feeds’ neurons attempting to connect attempting Nerve growth factor Nerve affects the growth of neurons neurons There are many types of There nerve growth factors including ‘brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)… which is also important for neuroplasticity in adults neuroplasticity • • 6. Synaptic rearrangement
Synaptic • Synaptic remodeling takes place for the remainder of • • the organisms life the Synaptic connectivity regulated by neuronal activity Synaptic (use it or lose it) (use This is essential for learning and memory Summary • Neural development regulated by : Intrinsic factors = genes Extrinsic factors = cell-cell interactions induction, trophic factors, neural activity (learning/experience/injury) Other extrinsic factors: nutrition (poor nutrition reduces brain size) drugs/toxins (fetal alcohol syndrome --> malformations, mental retardation) Hormonal Signaling
• Types of Chemical Communication • Hormonal Signaling principles of transmission structure of hormones cellular mechanisms regulation • Major Endocrine Glands pituitary hormones adrenal hormones thyroid hormones gonadal hormones • Hormones and Brain Endocrine Hormones
Hormone• Hormone- chemical of communication that is secreted into bloodstream and carried to distinct target tissues distinct Organs in the body that make Organs and secrete hormones and called ‘endocrine glands’ ‘endocrine While hormones are traditionally While defined as traveling through the blood… there is also ‘neurocrine’ or ‘neuro-endocrine’ signaling that occurs within the brain (or from brain to pituitary) • • Early evidence for testosterone
• In 1849, Arnold Berthold castrated young roosters • In some, implanted testis into body cavity
Group 1 Appearance of immature roosters Group 2 Group 3 Manipulation None Remove testes Remove testes and reimplant one in abdomen Appearance of adult roosters Comb and wattles: Mount hens? Aggressive? Crowing? Normal Yes Yes Normal Small No No Weak No...
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- Winter '08