1901-10 is greatest decade, but 1911-20 would have been if
there had been no World War.
Global Migration, 1500-1814
Atlantic Migrations 1880-1920
Density of Europe 1900
Maps of U.S. in 1910 with immigrant population
What group was the largest?
Germans (largest group every year
except for three (when Irish led) from 1854-1892
Where are the Russians?
New York and N. Dakota; national
Where are there few immigrants?
Immigration 1800-2005 per 1000
Immigration graph 1866-1925 (with breakdown by northern, cent-
ral, eastern, and southern Europe)
Pie Chart: Place of Origin of Immigrant Population, 1920
l880l930: 27 million total immigrants to U.S.
Classified in popular culture as "new immigrants" - from
eastern and southern Europe; "old immigrants" before 1880 came
from northern and western Europe
: steerage quarters
For most this was a horrifying experience; one immigrant, 1900s:
"On board the ship we became utterly dejected.
broke out among us.
Hundreds of people had vomiting fits. . . .
As all were crossing the ocean for the first time, they thought
their end had come.
The confusion of cries was
unbearable. . . . I wanted to escape from that inferno but no
sooner had I thrust my head forward from the lower bunk than
someone above me vomited straight upon my head.
I wiped the
vomit away, dragged myself onto the deck, leaned against the
railing and vomited my share into the sea, and lay down half-
dead upon the deck."
: Ellis Island (1892) - entry point for 17 million
Europeans; built to process 5,000/day, but by 1905 as many as
10,000/day came through; as many as 3,000 suicides/year; called
"a cattle station disguised as a church." (Charyn, 27, 36)