History Lecture Urbanization

History Lecture Urbanization - 19th-CENTURY URBANIZATION...

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1 19 th -CENTURY URBANIZATION (SURVEY) [Music: The Black Ball Line (1840s) Low Bridge, Everybody Down [Erie Canal] (1905) Buffalo Gals (1840s) – Pete Seeger version: "America was born in the country and has moved to the city." Richard Hofstadter How did America become urban? Slides : World = s largest cities, 2006 Maps of 1820 and 1860 cities American cities grew at an unprecedented rate from 182060 1790: 5% of U.S. population lived in cities (2,500 or more residents) 1860: 20% 1900: 40% 1920: 51.4% 182060: US pop. grew 226% 1970: 80% urban pop. grew 800% 1800: 5 largest U.S. cities: 1 New York, N.Y. 60,515 2 Philadelphia, Pa. 41,220 3 Baltimore, Md. 26,514 4 Boston, Mass. 24,937 5 Charleston, S.C. 18,824 1850: 5 largest U.S. cities: 1 New York, N.Y. 515,547 2 Baltimore, Md. 169,054 3 Boston, Mass. 136,881 4 Philadelphia, Pa. 121,376 5 New Orleans, La. 116,375 24 Chicago, Ill. 29,963 1900: 5 largest U.S. cities: 1 New York, N.Y. 3,437,202 (increase by factor of 57 since 1800) 2 Chicago, Ill. 1,698,575 3 Philadelphia, Pa. 1,293,697 (increase by factor of 31 since 1800) 4 St. Louis, Mo. 575,238 5 Boston, Mass. 560,892
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19 th -CENTURY URBANIZATION (SURVEY) The populations of the largest cities in nineteenth-century U.S. B New York, Chicago and Philadelphia B increased twenty-fold or more between 1800 and 1900; by contrast, between 1900 and 1990 their populations increased only by a factor of two or less Before 1830, only one city over 100,000 (NYC 202,000); by 1970153 Slides : NYC harbor; Chicago harbor By 1860, New York City was the world's busiest port (and would remain so for a century) and Chicago the world's busiest inland port; by 1889, traffic on the Chicago River made it the 2nd busiest port in the entire U.S. Slide : Growth of income, 1-2000 AD For thousands of years before 1800, there was little sustained improvement in mankind=s general material standing of living; little variation from place to place. Average person in 1800 England little better off than one living in 1200; no one talked about A growth. @ Industrialization and urbanization transformed life expectancy: in London from 1730-49, 75% of all children died before the age of five; from 1810-29 - 31.8% Graph : U.S. life expectancy: 1850: 38 years 1900: 47 years 2000: 77 years Slide : U.S. river systems What brought about this unprecedented and historic urbanization? Why did the urban industrial core of the US develop around NYC and New England? Why didn't the Mississippi River become the American Rhine? Why didn't New Orleans become the Gateway of America, as Rotterdam did for Europe? In fact, South always had a good climate, great river system:
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History Lecture Urbanization - 19th-CENTURY URBANIZATION...

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