History Lecture 2


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1 THADDEUS STEVENS AND RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION [Pass out copies of 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments Film: play segment from Birth of a Nation (1915). Music: Thomas Westendorf, Going from da Cotton Fields (1879) Major Innes Randolph, Unreconstructed Rebel (1866) Fisk U. Jubilee Singers, Keep A’Itchin’ Along (?) For other songs, see http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_music.html or http://www.perfessorbill.com/sources1.shtml ] Upon the Civil War's end, a number of possible scenarios existed: 1) North could angrily punish South Slide : map of Confederacy In a nation of 31 million people, 620,000 died as members of the Union or Confederate armed forces, a total nearly equal to the deaths in all other American wars combined, the equivalent of 6 million in terms of today's population. This figure does not include the thousands of civilians who be- came collateral victims of battles or who perished in disease- ridden camps for runaway slaves or in internecine conflict between Unionist and Confederate families that raged in parts of the South. $3.5 billion in expenditures with massive debt to be paid off for generations (from 1789 to 1860, the total expenditures of the federal government did not add up to $3.5 billion) Lincoln assassination Even the moderate U.S. Sen. John Sherman (Ohio) said, "the whole rebellion should wear the badge of the penitentiary." Solution: execute Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Vice President Alexander Stephens, exile thousands, erase boundaries of states, confiscate plantations 2) Mass guerilla warfare by South; Gen. E.P. Alexander advocated such after Lee's surrender.
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1 THADDEUS STEVENS AND RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION Slide : Jesse James In some respects, this happened. During his first train robbery (in Iowa in 1873), the former Confederate Jesse James was dressed in KKK garb; James hated former Mississippi governor Ad- elbert Ames (slide and photo in Foner) and attacked the bank he used in Northfield, Minnesota in 1876 (Stiles, 235-36, 307, 324, 334-5) 3) Blacks could revolt against former masters Slide : Nat Turner=s rebellion (1831) - 55 white people killed None of these things happened! North elected to "reconstruct" the South. In 1865, the North was divided into two broad groups on how to treat the defeated South: Slide : Lincoln 1) Lincoln and moderate Republicans wanted to be conciliatory - Lincoln=s (later Johnson=s) Ten Percent Plan: amnesty for taking loyalty oath; former Confederate states could return if 10% of population took loyalty oath and accepted emancipation (3/4 of Southern men age 1845 served in Confederacy); no provision for black suffrage or equality It "frees the slave and ignores the negro." Wendell Phillips 2) "Radical Republicans" wanted to punish the South and Arecon- struct@ the South with a Afree@ wage-labor, capitalist economy. Radical Republican's evolved out of the free soil movement; were
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2011 for the course HIST 112 taught by Professor Winling during the Fall '08 term at Loyola Chicago.

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