Tropics-Oceania-comp

Tropics-Oceania-comp - Migrations of early Humans into...

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http://www.ck/people.htm Migrations of early Humans into Island SE Asia and Melanesia
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New Guinea transition to farming
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Kuk Swamp, New Guinea Evidence for transition to agriculture from early hunter-gatherer societies forest clearing and possible water management (diversion), ca. 7000 BC Early Holocene domestication of taro and banana, together with some varieties of sugarcane and yams More organized agricultural works, including mounding for cultivation by ca. 5000 BC and grid-like ditching by 2000 BC, with evidence for more extensive forest clearing related to banana and taro cultivation Recent development of more complex systems related to introduction of sweet potato (the “Ipomean revolution”); food for pigs? Foundation for surplus production for exchange rituals in pigs and shells (called “Big-man” systems)
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Early “Vegeculture” In the 1950s, geographer Carl Sauer suggested that early agriculture occurred first in tropical forest regions of SE Asia Based on vegeculture, growing not by seeds by plant cuttings, of tropical forest plants, most notably root crops Happened along major rivers first, where early settled villages had emerged based on highly productive exploitation of rich aquatic resources
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Peter Bellwood The Austronesians
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British-American English
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Taiwan Earliest Austronesians Dabenkeng culture (3000-2000 BC) Nanguanli site, waterlogged site dating to 3000-2500 BC, which yielded cord-marked, red-slipped ceramics, clay spindle whorls, shell knives, carbonized rice and foxtail millet From 3000-900 BC Austronesians spread from Taiwan through Philippines, eastern Indonesia, Western Pacific (Micronesia and Island Melanesia), and western Polynesia (Tonga and Samoa) Red-slipped and often cordmarked pottery; outside of Taiwan developed into circle and punctate stamped pottery in the Philippines, Micronesia, and Lapita sites in Melanesia
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Settlement pauses relate to development of watercraft, notaby outrigger canoes (pause 1) by 2000 BC and “double canoe” in Polynesia (pause 2) 1500 BC 1350-900 BC 500 BC-AD 1 AD 700-1250
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Outrigger canoe
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Double canoe
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Lapita Colonization in Melanesia, 1350-900 BC (Proto-Oceanic Austronesian) “Tattooed pottery” Pigs, chickens, yams, dog, taro carried on sailing vessels
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rich in diverse artifacts and cultural features, like ovens, hearths, and postholes, tied to maritime and horticultural economy, which included pigs, fowl, and dogs. Sites average 1 ha (2.5 acres) with some larger sites (7-8 ha; 18-20 acres).
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Tropics-Oceania-comp - Migrations of early Humans into...

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