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Unformatted text preview: 23 is the outgroup for this study. It has eyes, square shell shape, 8 spots, no elbows and no horns. The Outgroup gives you something to study to help layout the rest of the rest. Like in the example from the book with reptiles being mammals but not having any of the other features. 23 is a caminalcules but its features are different. The horns and elbows seems to be the biggest variant of all my chosen characters. They changed the whole phylogenetic tree. They appeared sporadically in the caminalcules. The assumptions of primitive vs derived states make this study difficult because an adaption can happen any time as you see in my tree. Elbows show up randomly through the tree because different caminalcules adapted to needing elbow at different stages in the evolutionary track....
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