10F_f_Minerals - (1) naturally occurring (2) inorganic (3)...

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Unformatted text preview: (1) naturally occurring (2) inorganic (3) crystalline ­ orderly arrangement of atoms (4) solid (5) specific range of chemical composition Mineral definition Picture 7 Rock ­ a cohesive aggregate of minerals may be: all same mineral or several different minerals Minerals form by process of crystallization – Growth of a solid from constituent atoms coming together and bonding in the proper chemical proportions and crystalline arrangement Sodium chloride Minerals made of atoms of different elements Composition of the Crust Element Oxygen (O) Silicon (Si) Aluminum (Al) Iron (Fe) Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Magnesium (Mg) All others ~% by Weight 46.6 27.7 8.1 5.0 3.6 2.8 2.6 2.1 1.5 Minerals represented by chemical formula Halite NaCl quartz SiO2 hornblende Ca2(Fe,Mg)5AlSi8O22(OH)2 Mineral Groups ­ Silicates ­ Oxides ­ Carbonates ­ Sulfides (one or more of these) (K Ca Na Fe Mg Al Ti) Si O (Fe Ti Al) O (Ca Mg Fe) CO (Zn Cu) S 3 y xy Most important rock forming minerals are silicates Examples KAlSi O feldspar 3 8 FeSiO 3 pyroxene Silicates Silicon­oxygen tetrahedon Bonds with: Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Iron or other Si­O tetrahedra (1) Ferromagnesian silicate minerals ­ contain Fe (Iron) and/or Mg (magnesium) ­ dark color, more dense Examples: biotite, olivine, pyroxene, amphibole (2) Non­ferromagnesian silicate minerals ­ no Fe and Mg ­ light color, less dense Examples: feldspar (orthoclase, plagioclase), quartz ferromagnesian (dark) Non­ferromagnesian (light) How do minerals form? (1) Lowering temperature of a liquid below a minerals e.g., igneous rocks (2) Precipitation from saturated solution e.g., limestone, salt deposits (3) Atoms and ions become mobile and rearrange themselves into different minerals at high temperatures e.g., graphite­to­diamond, metamorphic rocks freezing point Picture 4 ...
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10F_f_Minerals - (1) naturally occurring (2) inorganic (3)...

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