10F_o_earthquakes - What is an earthquake? How faults cause...

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1906 San Francisco quake Earthquakes What is an earthquake? How faults cause earthquakes Seismic waves Locating earthquake epicenters Earthquake size Where do earthquakes occur? Earthquake prediction Exploration of the earth’s interior
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What is an earthquake? - shaking of the ground caused by a sudden slip along a fault surface 1999 Istanbul, Turkey
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Strain in Rocks Strain   - change in shape due to applied forces
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Flowing -  important in lower half of the crust  - high temperatures - does not produce earthquakes
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Faulting   Fault   - fracture across which displacement has occurred Most important in upper half of the crust - rocks are cool
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(Dip-slip) (Dip-slip) (Dip-slip) Fault surfaces may have various orientations (vertical to horizontal) May move in any direction (up, down, horizontal, obliquely)
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Faults may be any size (plate size to mm-scale)
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Types of Strain (shape change): Elastic deformation  - returns to original shape when stress is removed Important in earthquakes! Permanent deformation   - does not return to original shape
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Aspects of fault movement Elastic rebound theory - elastic strain builds up w/out movement on fault - fault ruptures suddenly - releases energy in the form of seismic waves as  the elastic strain is released http://www.iris.edu/about/ENO/aotw/archive/4/animations/AOFT4-2ReboundTrees-lg.mov
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Aspects of fault movement Elastic rebound theory
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Different types of fault behavior s tic k-s lip  - s tra in b uilds  (fa ult lo c ke d) fo r lo ng  pe rio d - re le a s e s  a  lo t o f e ne rg y whe n fa ult s lips e .g ., fa ult s lips  2 m e te rs  a ll a t o nc e        pro duc e s  la rg e   da ng e ro us  q ua ke s ! o r… pro duc ing  num e ro us  s m a ll- m a g nitude  q ua ke s e .g ., fa ult s lips  2 c m  in 100 s e pa ra te  s lip e ve nts Fa ult c re e p (a s e is m ic  s lip) - fa ult m o ve m e nt is  s lo w, g ra dua l, a nd s m o o th - no  s e is m ic  e ne rg y re le a s e d
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10F_o_earthquakes - What is an earthquake? How faults cause...

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