a-SW-Asia-Civ-comp

a-SW-Asia-Civ-comp - States and Cities Generally features...

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States and Cities Generally features of early states: urban (organized into cities and rural hinterlands) well defined and often large territories (not one or a few settlements) economies based on centralized accumulation of capital through taxation and tribute stratified, with social status largely determined by birth into one or another well defined social class (some social mobility); e.g., ruling elite, bureaucratic and religious officials, warrior, craft specialist, commoner, slave classes legitimate use of coercive force (law) and standing armies certain features, such as monumental architecture and public buildings, writing, sophisticated mathematics, engineering, and calendars, state religion and arts, etc.
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The Urban Revolution (see pp. 196-197) V. Gordon Childe defined urban societies as a revolution based on the presence of certain key elements , most notably: cities, writing, surplus, metallurgy, craft specialization, and social classes he felt that technological innovations (e.g., metallurgy, writing), craft specialization, and agricultural surplus were key in the emergence of ancient states as in his reconstruction of a “Neolithic Revolution” he felt that states were an advancement over earlier cultural forms and given the right conditions a natural development for humankind
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The Hydraulic (Irrigation) Hypothesis (pp. 196-197) In 1950s, Karl Wittfogel ( Oriental Despotism ) suggested a model for the emergence of the major Asian civilizations (China, India, Mesopotamia, and also Egypt and others) mechanisms of large-scale irrigation closely linked to emergence of state , including greater planning and coordination (water scheduling, calendars, construction planning, labor control), which required strong leadership and administration irrigation provided more stable productivity and increased wealth, and also required defense this resulted in increasing differentiation and social inequality (between leaders, administrators, and other high-ranking individuals and commoners), ultimately leading to despotic power by rulers
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Wittfogel’s Hydraulic Hypothesis
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Warfare and State Formation (pp. 196-197) Carneiro’s (1970) circumscription theory: In areas of circumscribed agricultural land,
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a-SW-Asia-Civ-comp - States and Cities Generally features...

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