Americas-3 - J. Diamond, Nature (2002) The Americas Manioc,...

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Unformatted text preview: J. Diamond, Nature (2002) The Americas Manioc, palm, coffee, and other tropicals s Generalized foragers probably accompanied by dogs - colonized most of Americas by 10,000 BC (Paleoindian), followed by broadly defined Archaic period, generally defined as pre-agricultural cultural groups, although in some cases with plants in incipient stage of domestication Early to Middle Archaic (9500-4000 BC): residentially stable hunting and gathering band societies in seasonal base camps; coincides with environmental change in early to mid-Holocene (follows Paleoindian) Middle Archaic (mid-Holocene Hypsithermal, ca. 6000-2000 BC): plant and animal communities known today generally fairly well established; generalized resource exploitation strategy, which included the hunting of a variety of animals and the gathering of wild plants, such as nuts, fruits, berries, and seeds, but with increased sedentism and more specialized economies, such as intensive shell-fishing and more intensive plant use Late Archaic (4000-1000 BC): increasing regional differentiation, sedentism, trade, and an expanded dietary inventory that included domesticated plants and fully committed agricultural communities in some areas (Mesoamerica, Andes, and, perhaps, Amazon). Unlike much of Asia and Europe, there was no suite of early founder crops that constituted a Neolithic package to be spread by colonizing village farmers. Full-time, sedentary farming tended to be a very late economic strategy in most areas, although each geographic region in North, Middle (Meso), and South America had unique cultural trajectories, including a wide range of domesticated plants and a few animals. Hypsithermal Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum (ca. 6- 2000 BC) Archaic Broad-spectrum revolution Mesoamerica Richard Scotty MacNeish & Tehuacan Valley, Mexico The Tehuacan Caves: Coxcatlan & Abejas Tehuacan Valley Caves, Central Mexico (R. MacNeish) Long Sequence 10,000-1000 BC - shift from mobile h/g societies to sedentary farming villages Shift from micro-band settlements (residential camps) to macro-band settlements (base camps), ca. 5000-3000 BC associated with early domesticates (squash, maize, beans, peppers) Mesoamerican equivalent of the Natufian ca. 2-1500 BC first fully settled farming villages (in contrast to Near East where domesticates and settled village life seemed to occur at about the same time) The Archaic in Mexico (ca. 9500-2500 BC) was characterized primarily by nomadic bands of foragers Domestication was a long process not a revolution Generalized foraging, focal gathering, led to early domestication Agriculture: casual cultivation (tending, transplanting, tilling, sowing), specialized gardening, and field agriculture comes several millennia later Thomas Malthus An essay on the principle of population as it affects the future improvement of society (1798) Neo-Malthusian premise: population growth is dependent variable, determined...
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Americas-3 - J. Diamond, Nature (2002) The Americas Manioc,...

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