Southeast Asia and Oceania-comp1

Southeast Asia and Oceania-comp1 - Forms of Social...

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Forms of Social Organization (Elman Service, 1962) Pre-State small-scale and kin-based “simple” societies : bands and tribes : small-sized (10s to 100s autonomous social groupings, egalitarian , division of labor and status based on age, sex, and personal characteristics or achievements); Chiefdoms : medium-sized social formations (1000s to 10,000s), ranked kin-groups based on hereditary status or rank (incipient classes), regionally- organized, integrated (non-autonomous) communities State (territory and class-based societies) ; Large societies divided into stratified social classes , with centralized government, a ruling elite class, able to levy taxes (tribute), amass a standing army, and enforce law.
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The Rise of Social Inequality and Complexity Rank Revolution What led to the emergence of social stratification (rise of social classes) and complexity (regional integration and institutional differentiation within communities) How were personal and social autonomy and egalitarian social structures transformed into societies in which people were subordinate to others based on birth and social position, at both community and regional levels
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Chiefdoms simple “two-tiered” hierarchy : people are either elite or commoner , based on heredity; generally based on semi-intensive economies, although not always agricultural; various communities integrated into regional society, typically showing a “bi-modal” or rank-ordered settlement pattern : one or a few large (first-order) settlements, with smaller (second-and third-order) satellite settlements linked to these; formal, even full-time specialists : religious, warriors, chiefs, artisans;
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http://www.ck/people.htm Migrations of early Humans into Island SE Asia and Melanesia
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New Guinea transition to farming
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Kuk Swamp, New Guinea Evidence for transition to agriculture from early hunter-gatherer societies, including very early evidence for forest clearing and possible water management (diversion), ca. 7000 BC; Early Holocene domestication of taro and banana, together with some varieties of sugarcane and yams; More organized agricultural works, including mounding for cultivation by ca. 5000 BC and grid-like ditching by 2000 BC, with evidence for more extensive forest clearing related to banana and taro cultivation, but remained egalitarian throughout history (“tribes”) Recent development of more complex systems related to introduction of sweet potato (the “Ipomean revolution”); food for
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Southeast Asia and Oceania-comp1 - Forms of Social...

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