BIO 171 - BIO 171 Chapter 50: Ecology: o Organisms o...

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BIO 171 Chapter 50: - Ecology: o Organisms o Populations o Communities o Ecosystems - Organismal Ecology- o Morphological, psychological, and behavioral adaptations that allow individuals to live in a particular area. o How do animals interact? - Population Ecology o Numbers of individuals in a population change over time. - Community Ecology- o Nature of interactions between species and consequences of those interactions. o Predation, parasitism, and competition, or explore how groups of species respond to fires, floods, and other disturbances. - Ecosystem Ecology- o Ecosystem= all the organisms in a particular region along w nonliving components. o Abiotic (not living) include air, water and soil. o Nutrients and energy move among organisms and through the surrounding atmosphere and soil or water. o What problems affect life on earth - Conservation biology o Study, reserve, and restore threatened populations, communities, and ecosystems. o Interactions depend on size and area. o Biotic components= members of the same or different species. o In water…nutrient availability, water depth, and water movement affect the distribution and abundance of organisms. o Nutrient levels are crucial. o Turnovers= bodies of water change due to changes in air temp. o Thermocline= heat slope o Without turnovers, most freshwater nutrients would remain on the bottom of lakes. o Water flow is important. - Water Depth: o Littoral- shallow waters along shore. o Limmetic offshore and comprimises water that receives enough light to support photosynthesis. o Benthic is made up of the substrate.
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o Regions of the littoral, limnetic, and benthic zones that receive sunlight are part of the photic zone. o Aphotic zone= no sunlight. o Litoral and Limmetic receive more sun better oxygenated. o Plankton live in the photic zone. o Wet lands= shallow water and emergent vegetation (grow above water). o Intertidal- rocky, sandy or muddy beach o Nertic zone- extends from intertidal zone to depths of about 200 m. Continental Shelf= outermost edge o Oceanic Zone- “open ocean” o Bottom of the ocean is the benthic zone. o Weather consists of the specific short term atmospheric conditions of temp, precip, sunlight and wind. Most important is temp and moisture. Biome is determined by average annual temp and precip and annual variation in temp and precip. o Net Primary Productivity- Total amount of carbon per year minus the amount that is oxidized during cellular respiration. Represents organic matter that is available as food for other organisms. Aboveground Mass- total mass of living plants, excluding roots. o High Temp and wet= photosynthesis, plant growth and NPP are max. o Epiphytes- plants that grow entirely on other plants. -
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course BIO 171 taught by Professor Josephinekurdziel during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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BIO 171 - BIO 171 Chapter 50: Ecology: o Organisms o...

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