Bender%20Identity%20Notes%209-9-10%20and%209-14-10 - PSY...

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PSY 239: The Psychology of Women Fall, 2010 The Development of Gender Identity: Biological Contributions Sex and Gender Sex : genetic, anatomical Gender : the psychosocial meanings of maleness or femaleness Gender Identity : one’s sense of being male or female Gender Roles: cultural norms of male and female behavior how we expect men and women to behave what is masculine and feminine change as social norms change Gender Identity - What is the contribution of biological factors versus social factors in our sense of ourselves as male or female? Two Principles of Prenatal Differentiation 1. Bipotentiality 2. Female form is normative Normal Prenatal Differentiation Levels of Biological Sex Determination - chromosomal sex: XX (female) or XY (male) - gonadal sex: ovaries or testes - hormonal sex: estrogens & androgens - Organizing (prenatal) vs. activating (at puberty) effects - internal structures : Mullerian (female) or Wolffian (male) duct systems - external structures: genital tubercle -> clitoris or penis; labio-scrotal swelling -> labia or scrotum
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Bender%20Identity%20Notes%209-9-10%20and%209-14-10 - PSY...

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