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Sociocultural Theories of Gender Identity Psychoanalytic Theory Social Learning Theory Cognitive Developmental Theory Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud: Stages of psychosexual development centers around erogenous zones 1. oral stage – birth to 1 ½ 2. anal stage – 1 ½ to 3 or 4 3. Phallic stage – 3 or 4 to 6 4. Latency stage – 6 to puberty 5. Genital stage – puberty on Phallic stage most important for personality development Both sexes the same until the phallic stage “Castration Anxiety” and Penis Envy” most important processes Oedipal/Electra Complexes boys – Oedipal Complex sexual desire for mother
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father is rival – fears retaliation “castration anxiety” resolved by “introjection” of father’s personality/values girls – Electra Complex Sexual desire for father Blames mother for inadequate equipment “penis envy” Resolution is maternal urges Weak identification with mother Implication for Women’s Personality 1. Passivity – obtain penis by impregnation
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