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POS 1041 Practice Questions 6_11

POS 1041 Practice Questions 6_11 - Chapter 6-11 Study Guide...

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Chapter 6-11 Study Guide Ryan Wisenski CHAPTER 6) Public Opinion -Political Ideology- a cohesive set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy about the role of government -Public Opinion- citizens’ attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events -Values (Beliefs) - basic principles that shape a person’s opinions about political issues and events -Attitude (Opinion) - a specific preference on a particular issue -Equality of Opportunity- a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential -Liberty- freedom from government control -Democracy- a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials -Political socialization- the induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based -Agencies of socialization- social institutions, including families and schools that help to shape individuals’ basic political beliefs and values -Liberal- those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment -Conservative- those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulae and economic arrangements. Conservatives believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens’ freedom -Political efficacy- the (belief of the) ability to influence government and politics -Marketplace of ideas- the public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete -Public-opinion polls- scientific instruments for measuring public opinion -Sample- a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population -Probability sampling- a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent -Random digit dialing- polls in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample -Selection bias- polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied, which creates errors in over representing or under representing some opinions -Sampling error- polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample -Measurement error- failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions -Push polling- a polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent’s opinion -Salient interests- attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them
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