Exam_2_study_guide - I. Be able to define and apply these...

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I. Be able to define and apply these Development terms to hypothetical situations Developmental psychology - the study of physical, mental, and social changes throughout the human life cycles Accommodation- adapting ones current understandings to incorporate new information Basic trust- a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy Rooting reflex- a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple Schemas- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Puberty- the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Grasping reflex- the babies reaction to grab something put in front of them Attachment/Attachment Theory- the relationship a child has his or her primary caregiver determines the pattern of relationships he or she will have in adulthood Primary (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) & Secondary sex characteristics- non reproductive sexual characteristics, such as breasts, hips, male voice quality, and body hair Habituation – the decreasing responsiveness of repeated stimulation Critical Period- an optimal period after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper developement Menarche- the first menstrual period Assimilation - interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing schema Imprinting- the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Pituitary Gland- regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands II. Know these things about development from lecture and/or book: - how do we define childhood? adolescence? Starts with physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with social achievement of independent adult status - why do we have trouble remembering things from when we are young? Because at the ages of 3 to 4 we begin to organize our memories differently as the brain cortex matures At what age are our earliest conscious memories? 3.5 years - What is the correct sequence of motor skill development in childhood? Sit, crawl, walk, run Are they the same or different around the world? Yes because the infants around the world develop in the same order - Is it possible to test cognitive development in infants? Yes If so, how is it done? Through the wrong answers and actions of children on childhood intelligence tests - know all of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (basically be very familiar with things from class & book – especially what a child is capable of at each stage as well as the phenomena that go with that stage) 4 Stages: 1. Sensorimotor- Birth to nearly 2 years; experiencing the world through senses and actions; object permanence, stranger anxiety 2. Preoperational- 2-6/7 years; representing things with words and images, using intuitive rather than logical thinking; pretend play, egocentrism, language developement 3. Concrete Operational- 7-11 years; thinking logically about concrete events, grasping concrete analogies and
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Exam_2_study_guide - I. Be able to define and apply these...

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