Exam_3_study_guide - Covers Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11 & 18...

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I. Know and be able to apply these learning terms: p. 315 -Classical conditioning: (Pavlovian/respondent conditioning) a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response Unconditioned response (UCR) - in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth Conditioned stimulus (CS) - in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned response (CR) – in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral(but now conditioned) stimulus The five processes of conditioning (recall that these apply to both classical and operant conditioning) Acquisition- initial stage of classical conditioning; associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response; when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; response is no longer reinforced. Spontaneous Recovery- the reappearance after a pause, of an extinguished condition response Generalization- tendency once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimuli Discrimination- the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal unconditioned stimuli Reinforcement & punishment - know definitions, types (positive and negative), and be able to differentiate between the primary reinforcers -Positive reinforcement- any stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response -Negative reinforcement- any stimulus that, when removes after a response, strengthens the response(not a punishment) -Primary reinforcer- an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need -Conditioned reinforcer (Secondary reinforcer) - a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer -Continuous reinforcement- reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs -Partial reinforcement- reinforcing a response only part of the time; slower accusation of response but greater resistance to extinction than continuous reinforcement -Punishment- an event that decreases the behavior that it follows -Reinforcement schedules: know the basic definition of each; also, which leads to most responses? Least responses? Fixed ratio-
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course PSY 2012 taught by Professor Waesche during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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Exam_3_study_guide - Covers Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11 & 18...

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