Bio Review test 2 - Bio Review Chapter 21 How Animals Move...

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Bio Review Chapter 21 How Animals Move - Endoskeleton - bones inside the body; important for support, protection, and production of blood cells - Axial - bones along the central axis of the body - Skull - Cranial bones and facial bones; Cranial- surround brain; Facial- front of face - True ribs - individual articulation with sternum - False ribs - fuse and connect - Floating ribs - last 5 don’t connect to sternum in front - 26 Vertebrae 7 Cervical Vertebrae - First 7 bones in spine 12 Thoracic Vertebrae - connects to 12 ribs 5 Lumbar Vertebrae - lower back; spinal bones Coccyx - tailbone Sacrum - triangular bone at the base of spine - Appendicular - bones of appendages and their attachments - Clavicle - collar bone - Scapula - shoulder - Humerus - upper arm bone - Radius/ulna - between elbow and wrist - Carpals - wrist - Metacarpals - palm of hands - Phalanges - fingers - Femur - upper leg (largest bone) - Patella - knee cap - Tibia - between knee and ankle (back) - Fibula - between knee and ankle (front) - Tarsals - ankle - Metatarsals - sole of foot - Phalanges - Toes - Matrix - material between plant animal cells - Osteoblast - secrete the matrix in growing bones - Osteocytes - cells in mature bone - Osteoclasts - breakdown matrix in bone - Red bone marrow - makes all blood cells - Yellow bone marrow - fat cells - Strain - joint twisted or stretched too far - Sprain - torn ligament/ tendon - Dislocation - bone pops out of joint - Arthritis - joint is painful and less moveable - Skeletal muscle - 600 skeletal muscle, 40% of body’s weight, muscles can only actively shorten, opposing pairs (biceps/triceps) - Tendons - directly attached to bone
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- Muscle Tension - the mechanical force that a contracting muscle exerts on some
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Bio Review test 2 - Bio Review Chapter 21 How Animals Move...

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