Chem Review

Chem Review - Chem Review Exam #3 Chapters 8, 9, 11.2...

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Chem Review Exam #3 Chapters 8, 9, 11.2 DEFINITIONS
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Chapter 8 Mole: Unit for amount of substance; contains Avogadro’s number of atoms, molecules, or other particles Avogadro’s number: 6.02 x 10 23 ; the number of items in one mole Molar mass: Mass in grams of one mole of any substance Reaction rate: Amount of reactant converted to product in a specific amount of time Activation energy (E act ): Quantity of energy needed for successful collision of reactants; determines reaction rate Exergonic: A chemical process in which there is a net energy release Catalyst: Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in identity Dynamic equilibrium: A state of balance between opposite changes occurring at the same time Chemical equilibrium: Condition in which a chemical reaction and its reverse are occurring at equal rates Le Chatelier’s principle: When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts to relieve the stress Endergonic: A chemical process in which there is a net consumption or energy Entropy change: A measure of the change in the disorder of a system as it undergoes chemical reaction or physical change Enthalpy change: A measure of the quantity of heat transferred into or out of a system as it undergoes a chemical or physical change Thermodynamics: The science of energy and its transformations First law of thermodynamics: Energy can be converted from one form to another but cannot be destroyed Chapter 9 Acid-base indicators: substances that change color with changes in acidity or basicity of a solution Hydronium ion: A hydrated proton H 3 O + + .. H------O------H | H (Lewis Structure) Acidic solution: A solution that contains a higher concentration of H 3 O + ions than OH - ions Basic solution (alkaline solution): A solution that contains a higher concentration of OH - ions than H 3 O + ions .. – H-------O (Lewis Structure) Salt: Ionic compound composed of the cation from a base and the anion from an acid Neutralization reaction: Reaction of equivalent quantities of an acid and a base Acid: Molecule or ion able to donate a hydrogen ion to a base. Acids produce H 3 O + ions
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in aqueous solutions Base: Molecule or ion able to accept a hydrogen ion from an acid. Bases release or produce OH( aq ) in aqueous solutions Acid-base reaction: Reaction in which a hydrogen ion is exchanged between an acid and a base Strong acid: Acid that is 100% ionized in aqueous solution Weak acid: Acid that is only partially ionized in aqueous solution and establishes equilibrium with nonionized acid Strong base: Base that is 100% ionized in aqueous solution Weak base: Base that is only partially ionized in aqueous solution and establishes equilibrium with nonionized base Concentration of a solution: The quantity of a solute dissolved in a specific quantity of a solvent or solution Molarity: Number of moles of solute per liter of solution pH: Negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration of a solution
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Chem Review - Chem Review Exam #3 Chapters 8, 9, 11.2...

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