EE 515 wk 4

EE 515 wk 4 - Wk 4 Ultimate Photolithography Pattern...

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Unformatted text preview: Wk 4 Ultimate Photolithography + Pattern transfer EE 515/415 David T. Shaw EE Fall 2009 Read ANSYS (Chapt 1) Ultimate Lithography R Generally, we would like to have a decreasing R without changing to much of the value of DOF Roadmap for Lithography Progressing of Wavelengths Decreasing λ • Up to the 80’s, mercury arc lamp UV radiation -- λ = 436 nm—g-line, 405 nm—h-line or 365 nm—i-line • Switched to excimer lasers for DUV in the 90’s -- 248 nm—KrF laser and then 193 nm—ArF laser • Will soon move to F2 laser ( λ = 157 nm), but the introduction was delayed due to major technical problems • Next generation lithography -- EUV radiation ( λ = 13 . 5 nm) Strategies in Dealing with resolution shortfalls • Resolution enhancement technologies -- three principal methods used today – Phase-shifted masks (PSM) – Off-axis illumination (OAI) – Optical proximity correction (OPC) • Immersion lithography -- buries the lens in water or high-index fluid to increase NA • Nanoimprint techniques • Eventually, we will move to Extreme UV light (13nm) – But this is pretty challenging in itself – Everything absorbs 13nm (air, and even to a partial extent, mirrors) – Aimed at the 22nm generation and smaller History of EUV • 1988 -- LLNL, Bell Labs succeeded in applying EUV in projection lithography at 4.5 and 37 nm (soft x-ray beams) • 1989 -- NTT (Japan) first demonstrated the...
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EE 515 wk 4 - Wk 4 Ultimate Photolithography Pattern...

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