human - 1/31/2011 Human Development PSY 120 Professor South...

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1/31/2011 1 Human Development PSY 120 Professor South 2/1/2011 & 2/3/2011 Announcements • Exam 1 Tuesday February 8 – In class – 50 multiple choice questions 50 multiple choice questions • On-line review quiz – Blackboard – Extra Credit! (5 points possible) – 20 minute time limit Goals 1. What is developmental psychology? 2. Physical Development 3. Cognitive Development 4.Social development
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1/31/2011 2 1. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY? Developmental Psychology • Developmental Psychology – a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span • Nature or nurture? • Stability or change? • Continuous or stage-like? • Are there critical periods when an individual is particularly sensitive to certain environmental experiences? 2. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
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1/31/2011 3 Conception Stages of Prenatal Development • Germinal period: 0-2 weeks – Time from conception to the implantation of the zygote (fertilized egg) • Embryonic period: 2-8 weeks – Heartbeat begins; recognizable body parts appear; sexual differentiation begins • Fetal period: 9th week - birth – Last 3 months: Rapid growth of body and brain Germinal Period • Begins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube • Ends 2 weeks later when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterus
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1/31/2011 4 Embryonic Period from implantation to 8 weeks after conception body parts are formed during this period Fetal Period From 9 weeks after conception to birth Highlights – Increase Highlights Increase in size, systems begin to function Age of viability – 22 to 28 weeks The Developing Person • As our bodies develop, we have basically all of the same parts; of course they change in size as we get older
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1/31/2011 5 3. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The Developing Brain • The brain is not like the rest of the body. It does not begin as a “little adult brain” that merely needs to grow in size. • We start with a brain that is fundamentally different from how it will be later in life. • Birth: brain is 25% of adult weight Age 2: 75% • Age 6: 90% • Few new neurons are produced after prenatal period • 40% of synapses are pruned during childhood and adolescence
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1/31/2011 6 Brain Development • Develops from back to front – Brain stem and spinal cord are nearly fully organized and myelinated at birth – Midbrain and cerebellum begin myelinating just after birth – Last of all, the cerebral cortex matures (frontal lobe is not finished until the late teens) How is the Brain Maturing? • It ‘wires up” – Develop connections between different neurons – Technically, referred to as “Synaptogenesis”; process of forming synapses with other neurons At birth 3 months 15 months Cortical Neurons The Aging Brain • Neurons do die with age – However, they can continue to increase in complexity • Dementia: Loss in mental functioning caused by physical changes in the brain – Fewer than 1% of those over 65 have dementia – About 20% over 80 have dementia
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1/31/2011 7
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human - 1/31/2011 Human Development PSY 120 Professor South...

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