1Psychological DisordersPSY 120Prof. South1What is abnormal?1.2.Types of Disorders3.Etiology of Mental Illness1. Defining and Classifying Abnormal BehaviorA clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome with:1Present distress1.2. Disability3.An increased risk of suffering pain, death, disability, or loss of freedomDSM-IV-TR200+ diagnostic categories18 primary headingsNot included1.Expected & culturally sanctioned response2.Deviant behavior3.Conflicts between individual & societyThe Concept of Insanity•Insanity: A legal term defined as inability to understand that certain actions are wrong at the time of a crimeUnder this definition people with disorders– Under this definition, people with disorders may be judged legally sane•Famous cases in which the insanity defense succeeded: John Hinckley Jr., Jeffrey Dahmer•Used in < 1% of criminal felony casesDifference between“Normal & Abnormal” Anxiety Normal–Everyone experiences anxiety from time to time–Often important to have low to moderate levels of anxiety for optimal performance–A little anxiety motivates you to “go the extra mileAbnormal– intense anxiety where there is no danger–OverwhelmedOverwhelmed with anxiety is not adaptive
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2Abnormality as a Disease: The Medical Model•View that abnormal behavior is symptomatic of underlying “disease” that can be “cured” with appropriate therapy– Draws an analogy between mental and physical illness•A widely held view, but some question it– Causes of mental illness often unclear– Social, cultural context of symptoms is important, more so than for physical illnessThe Five DSM-IV AxesAxis IMost major disordersAxis IIStable, enduring problems; personality disordersAxis IIIMedical conditionsAxis IVPsychosocial problems/stressorsAxis VGlobal clinician rating of adaptive functioningFig. 14-3a, p. 457Current System of Classification•Disorders grouped together under broader categories –E.g. Mood Disorders•Depressive Disorders–Depressive Disorder–Dysthymic Disorder–Depressive Disorder NOS• Bipolar Disorders•Bipolar Disorders–Bipolar I–Bipolar II– Cyclothymic Disorder–Bipolar Disorder NOs•To qualify for a diagnosis, meet certain number of criteria for each disorder•Thus, a “categorical” system of diagnosis•Is this the best way?2. Categories of Mental IllnessMajor Depression1 or more Major Depressive EpisodesSymptomsBehaviorAffectiveCognitivePhysiologicalAnhedoniaEpisodic Course