psych disorders

psych disorders - Psychological Disorders PSY 120 Prof...

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1 Psychological Disorders PSY 120 Prof. South 1 What is abnormal? 1. 2. Types of Disorders 3. Etiology of Mental Illness 1. Defining and Classifying Abnormal Behavior A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome with: 1 Present distress 1. 2. Disability 3. An increased risk of suffering pain, death, disability, or loss of freedom DSM-IV-TR 200+ diagnostic categories 18 primary headings Not included 1. Expected & culturally sanctioned response 2. Deviant behavior 3. Conflicts between individual & society The Concept of Insanity Insanity: A legal term defined as inability to understand that certain actions are wrong at the time of a crime Under this definition people with disorders – Under this definition, people with disorders may be judged legally sane Famous cases in which the insanity defense succeeded: John Hinckley Jr., Jeffrey Dahmer Used in < 1% of criminal felony cases Difference between “Normal & Abnormal” Anxiety Normal –Everyone experiences anxiety from time to time –Often important to have low to moderate levels of anxiety for optimal performance –A little anxiety motivates you to “go the extra mile Abnormal – intense anxiety where there is no danger –Overwhelmed Overwhelmed with anxiety is not adaptive
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2 Abnormality as a Disease: The Medical Model View that abnormal behavior is symptomatic of underlying “disease” that can be “cured” with appropriate therapy – Draws an analogy between mental and physical illness A widely held view, but some question it – Causes of mental illness often unclear – Social, cultural context of symptoms is important, more so than for physical illness The Five DSM-IV Axes Axis I Most major disorders Axis II Stable, enduring problems; personality disorders Axis III Medical conditions Axis IV Psychosocial problems/stressors Axis V Global clinician rating of adaptive functioning Fig. 14-3a, p. 457 Current System of Classification Disorders grouped together under broader categories E.g. Mood Disorders Depressive Disorders Depressive Disorder Dysthymic Disorder Depressive Disorder NOS • Bipolar Disorders Bipolar Disorders Bipolar I Bipolar II – Cyclothymic Disorder Bipolar Disorder NOs To qualify for a diagnosis, meet certain number of criteria for each disorder Thus, a “categorical” system of diagnosis Is this the best way? 2. Categories of Mental Illness Major Depression 1 or more Major Depressive Episodes Symptoms Behavior Affective Cognitive Physiological Anhedonia Episodic Course
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