social psych

social psych - SocialPsychology PSY120 ProfessorSouth...

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1 Social Psychology PSY 120 Professor South 11/3/09 I.Social Cognition II.Social Influence III.Relations with Others Announcements! Social Psychology lectures extended to Nov. 10 Exam 3 (Covering 9, 10, 11, 13) moved to Nov. 12 No class Nov. 24 See updated syllabus on Blackboard I. Social Cognition 1. Person Perception: Knowing Others 2. Attribution Theory 3. Attitudes 1. Person Perception Attractiveness Bias Physically attractive people judged more: Intelligent Competent Sociable Social Schemas General knowledge structure in long term memory, relating to social experiences or people May be used to “categorize” others, guide how we treat them
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2 Stereotypes Collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members Example: Racial and gender stereotypes May be activated unconsciously Explicit Implicit Aware Unaware Controllable Uncontrollable Intentional Unintentional Endorsed No endorsement Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The process in which a person’s expectation about another person… elicits behavior from that person that confirms the expectation Observer Acts on Expectancy Self Fulfilling Prophecy Target Responds with Expectancy-Confirming Behavior Male believes he is talking to attractive female Male believes he is talking to unattractive female Expectation Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Unaware female responds Male subject rates female positively Male subject rates female negatively Outcome Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude toward a group or its members It is interplay of: Social Emotional Cognitive factors 2. Attribution Theory
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3 “Nervous guy” “Not so nervous guy” (DISCOUNTING) Really nervous guy” (AUGMENTING) Our behavior is powerfully influenced by the SITUATION SITUATION But, observers tend to give more weight to personality personality than to the situation Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors, underestimate influence of external Fundamental Attribution Error (Correspondence Bias) factors….thus, we attribute the actor’s behavior to a corresponding disposition, not the situation. 50 60 70 RO ATTITUDE Attribution What should have happened 50 60 70 What actually happened Jones & Harris (1967) 10 20 30 40 CHOICE NO CHOICE ATTRIBUTED PRO-CAST PRO CASTRO ESSAY ANTI CASTRO ESSAY 10 20 30 40 CHOICE NO CHOICE ATTRIBUTED PRO-CASTR PRO CASTRO ESSAY ANTI CASTRO ESSAY Actor Observer Discrepancy Tendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources, behavior of others to internal sources But : We make internal attributions for own actions when they produce positive outcomes (self-serving bias) 3. Atttitudes
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4 Leon Festinger: Cognitive Dissonance The Tension produced when people sense an inconsistency between a) 2 different attitudes or b) an attitude and a behavio or b) an attitude and a behavior Tension is reduced by changing attitude, or avoiding situations that increase the dissonance Self Perception Theory People use observations of own behavior as a
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social psych - SocialPsychology PSY120 ProfessorSouth...

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