Lecture%204%20Water%20and%20Soil%20finished2

Lecture%204%20Water%20and%20Soil%20finished2 - 2/20/11...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/20/11 Climate is strongly affected by carbon sequestration and carbon release. Click to edit Master subtitle style 2/20/11 Lecture 4 Water and soil 2/20/11 How does water get into plant 2/20/11 2/20/11 Two major evolutionary advances make it possible for very large plants to exist on land 2/20/11 Plant Tissues Dermal (protection) Epidermis Periderm Ground Parenchyma storage, photosynthesis Collenchyma support Sclerenchyma support, protection Vascular 2/20/11 Stomata Pores in the leaf epidermis Guard cells surround the pore and regulate opening and closing Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor are exchanged through the stomata 2/20/11 Stomatal closure S succulents, M mesophytes, Sc- sclerophyllous, X xerophytes Xylem translocation Xylem are specialized tissue that conduct water and minerals Xylem tissues are non-living and lack cytoplasm The cell walls of xylem tissue contain lignin which is a tough waterproof material Water can move in and out of xylem through nonlignified 2/20/11 Types of xylem Vessel elements Trache id Phloem translocation Phloem are comprised of living cells connected together to form sieve tubes Companion cells are involved in loading and unloading sugars. Sugar is actively loaded into the phloem at a source 2/20/11 2/20/11 Plants cannot grow (add biomass) with just CO2 and water What else do they need? 2/20/11 Roots n Most roots have 3 functions n Absorb water and minerals n Produce hormones n Anchor and support the plant n Some roots n Provide storage n Involved in vegetative reproduction n Adapted for specialized functions Anatomy Root hairs greatly increase root surface area 100 um vs. 10 um Can penetrate soil pores Very transitory (4-5 d) 2/20/11 Support Contractile roots Can collapse cells to contract roots Pull shoot deeper into soil Can actually bury bulbs deeper May be important in anchoring shoots for seed that germinate at soil surface 2/20/11 Dandelion taproot 2/20/11 Rhizomes : elongated belowground horizontal stems (nodes, internodes, modified leaves). New growth originates from buds at the nodes. Quackgrass ( Elytrigia repens ), J ohnsongrass ( Sorghum 2/20/11 Quackgrass rhizomes Stolons : horizontal aboveground stems. New growth originates at the nodes. Food storage not a major function. Ground ivy ( Glechoma hederacea ), Bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) 2/20/11 Bulbs : leaf structures modified for food structure and borne on a small stem plate. Roots and new bulbs develop from this stem plate....
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course BTNY 211 taught by Professor Gibson during the Spring '11 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Lecture%204%20Water%20and%20Soil%20finished2 - 2/20/11...

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