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Lecture%204%20Water%20and%20Soil%20finished2

Lecture%204%20Water%20and%20Soil%20finished2 - Climate is...

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2/20/11 Climate is strongly affected by carbon sequestration and carbon release.
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Click to edit Master subtitle style 2/20/11 Lecture 4 Water and soil
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2/20/11 How does water get into plant tissues?
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2/20/11
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2/20/11 Two major evolutionary advances make it possible for very large plants to exist on land
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2/20/11 Plant Tissues Dermal (protection) Epidermis Periderm Ground Parenchyma storage, photosynthesis Collenchyma support Sclerenchyma support, protection Vascular
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2/20/11 Stomata Pores in the leaf epidermis Guard cells surround the pore and regulate opening and closing Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor are exchanged through the stomata
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2/20/11 Stomatal closure S – succulents, M – mesophytes, Sc- sclerophyllous, X – xerophytes
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Xylem translocation Xylem are specialized tissue  that conduct water and  minerals Xylem tissues are non-living  and lack cytoplasm The cell walls of xylem tissue  contain lignin which is a tough  waterproof material Water can move in and out of  xylem through nonlignified 
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2/20/11 Types of xylem Vessel elements Trache id
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Phloem translocation Phloem are comprised  of living cells  connected together to  form sieve tubes Companion cells are  involved in loading  and unloading sugars. Sugar is actively  loaded into the  phloem at a source  and unloaded at sinks. 
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2/20/11
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2/20/11 Plants cannot grow (add biomass) with just CO2 and water What else do they need?
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2/20/11 Roots n Most roots have 3 functions n Absorb water and minerals n Produce hormones n Anchor and support the plant n Some roots n Provide storage n Involved in vegetative reproduction n Adapted for specialized functions (parasitism; symbiosis)
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Anatomy Root hairs greatly increase root surface area 100 um vs. 10 um Can penetrate soil pores Very transitory (4-5 d)
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2/20/11 Support
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Contractile roots Can collapse cells to contract roots Pull shoot deeper into soil Can actually bury bulbs deeper May be important in anchoring shoots for seed that germinate at soil surface
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2/20/11 Dandelion taproot
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2/20/11
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