Lecture%2010%20Caffeine

Lecture%2010%20Caffeine - Caffeine The worlds most widely...

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Caffeine The world’s most widely consumed psychoactive drug
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Caffeine Alkaloid. Alkaloids are primarily produced by plants. First isolated from coffee; French chemists called it “cafeine” from “café”. Caffeine acts as a pesticide, paralyzing and kill
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Humans rely heavily on chemicals that plants produce for defense against herbivores
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How does it act in the body/ Central nervous system stimulant Chemically similar to adenosine, which seems to contribute to sleepiness. Competes for adenosine binding sites. Reduces fatigue, increases alertness and focus, and can improve coordination Half-life of about 5 hours in a healthy adult, longer in pregnant women* and in people with liver disease.
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Oddly enough, caffeine applied topically seems to counteract hair growth suppression caused by testosterone.
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Tolerance and withdrawal Over time your body will increase adenosine receptors. This will reduce the effects of caffeine and can lead to tolerance of very high doses of caffeine. If you stop taking caffeine, adenosine can cause blood vessels in the head to dilate, thus withdrawal headaches. Serotinin levels also appear to drop leading to irritability and lower motivation. Most withdrawal symptoms last only
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Mixed effects May help with short-term memory but impair long-term memory and learning. Mixed evidence for effect on heart disease Mixed evidence for effects on pregnant women but reduced caffeine intake is commonly recommended May reduce Parkinson’s disease
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Kaldi the Ethiopian goatherder His caffeinated dancing goats
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History Coffee houses started in Mecca Brought to Europe in 1615 and first coffee houses established in Venice Spread to rest of Europe and to the colonies. Wildly popular. Coffee and bread became diet for working poor.
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