History Final Exam Review

History Final Exam Review - History Final Exam Review...

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History Final Exam Review Commercialism Cotton gin o Invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney o It enabled a person to separate 50x as much cotton as could be done by hand o Effects Planters and slaves migrated westward Tied cultures of Old Southwest to coastal Southeast Cotton became a major export commodity for the US Steamboats o Created by Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston in 1807 o First steamboat named the Clermont ; sailed up Hudson R. o Effects Created a continental market and an agricultural empire New farmers, promoters, speculators, retailers, and land-boomers New Orleans became the leading port for exports Erie Canal o Opened in 1825 o Stretched for 350 miles from Albany to Buffalo o Effects Reduced travel time from NYC to Buffalo from 26 days to 6
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Reduced cost of moving a ton of freight to $5 from $100 Inspired a “mania” for canal building Know-Nothing Party (American Party) o Members pledged never to vote for any foreign-born or Catholic candidate o Movement subsided when slavery became focal issue of 1850s o Supported expansion of naturalization period (citizenship) from 5 years to 14 years Nativism o Many native-born Americans resent newcomers such as Irish and German Catholics o Sermons supporting nativism led by Lyman Beecher that inspired a mob-mentality Clipper ships o First ship created in 1845—named the Rainbow o Doubled the speed of the older merchant vessel o Creation provoked by the lure of Chinese tea and American gold o Lacked ample cargo space and eventually gave way to larger steamships Samuel F. B. Morse o Invented the telegraph in 1832 o First message transmitted from Baltimore to Washington in 1844 Minstrel Shows o First uniquely American form of mass entertainment o Featured white performers made up as blacks o Reinforced prevailing racial stereotypes
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o Especially popular among northern working-class ethnics and southern whites o Antebellum minstrel shows usually portrayed slaves as loyal and happy and caricatured free blacks in the North as superstitious buffoons o Provided a medium for the expression of authentic African-American dance and music Jacksonian Romanticism and Reform Second Great Awakening o Sparked by fears of secularism around 1800 o Fed upon the spreading notion of social equality o Methodists and Baptists sought to democratize religious practices and congregational structures o “populist” tendencies reinforced by concept of “free will” o Salvation was available to everyone Frontier Revivals o Baptists Appealed to the common people of the frontier Theology grounded in authority of Bible and recognition of a person’s innate depravity Supported concepts of universal redemption and adult baptism Stressed euality of all before God o Methodists Developed most effective recruiting effort known as the “circuit rider” system (began with Francis Asbury) Peter Cartwright was the most successful circuit
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course HIST 105 taught by Professor Hatfield during the Fall '07 term at Texas A&M.

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History Final Exam Review - History Final Exam Review...

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