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M4Brain-2 - MODULE 4 THE BRAIN LOWER LEVEL BRAIN STRUCTURES...

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MODULE 4: THE BRAIN LOWER LEVEL BRAIN STRUCTURES I. Introduction a. Evolutionarily oldest i.Probably first appeared in an ancient fish ii.Hasn’t changed much b. Involved in basic functions c. Includes i.Brainstem ii.Thalamus iii.Cerebellum iv.Limbic system II. The brainstem a. Medulla oblongata i.Basic life functions ii.Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, coughing, etc. b. Pons i.Swelling on front of RF ii.Involved in control of nerves of face and head iii.Involved in sleep, arousal III. The thalamus a. Sensory information relay station b. Receives input from all senses except olfaction IV. The reticular formation a. Sensory information from body sent to higher areas of brain b. Involved in arousal V. The cerebellum a. Organizes sensory information b. Guides movement & balance c. Helps maintain muscle tone d. Very sensitive to alcohol VI. The limbic system a. Amygdala, hypothalamus & hippocampus b. Involved in emotion & memory c. The amygdala—role in anger, fear i.In monkeys 1. Lesions result in placidity 2.
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