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M18OperantConditioning-3 - Module 18 Operant Conditioning...

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Module 18: Operant Conditioning SKINNER’S EXPERIMENTS I. Thorndike’s experiments a. Puzzle boxes b. Law of Effect—"Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are...closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more likely to recur..." (Thorndike, 1911, p 24). II. Reinforcement—any event following a response that increases the probability or strength of the preceding behavior III. Contingent—A reinforcement is given only after a particular response has been made IV. Skinner’s experiments a. Shaping b. Reinforcers i.Primary—biological necessities, social stimulation, satisfaction of curiosity ii.Secondary—gain value through association (classical conditioning) iii. Premack principle —response hierarchies—behaviors higher in hierarchy in hierarchy can reinforcer behaviors lower in hierarchy c. Delay of reinforcement i.Immediate reinforcement (or punishment) works better ii.Behaviors with long delays harder to condition, e.g., AIDS
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