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BMS107examreviewPART2-2

BMS107examreviewPART2-2 - BMS107examreview The following...

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BMS107examreview The following questions can be answered from one of the following sources: McKinley & O’Loughlin Text Reading Assignments: Chapters 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 & 9 Online Lectures: Introduction to Anatomy, Cells, Tissues, Skeletal System Bone List Handout 26. Differentiate between: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, external rotation, pronation and supination. 27. What causes a ruptured (or herniated) disc? What structural changes occur in the intervertebral discs? An IV disc contains the inner nucleus pulposus and the outer annulus fibrosis When a disc is ruptured, the inner fluid is pushed through the outer layer and enters the vertebral canal or the lateral intervertebral foramen This can be caused by heavy lifting or other imbalances in force/pressure on one side of the spine 28. Describe the structural differences between a typical cervical vertebra, the atlas and the axis. 29. Describe the basic structure of a vertebrae. 30. Where is each of the 3 spinal curves? What is lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis? Cervical (convex), thoracic (concave), lumbar (convex), sacral (concae) Lordosis (“swayback”): excessive convexity of the lumbar region of the spine Kyphosis (“hunchback”): excessive concavity of the cervical region of the spine Scoliosis: altered alignment of the thoracic region of the spine o May result in a “C” or “S” shape 31. Name the 4 fontanels of the fetal skull. A fontanel is a “soft spot” on a baby There is the anterior, posterior, spehnoidal (anterolateral) and mastoid (posterolateral) 32. Describe how a bone recovers from a fracture. List 5 different types of fractures. Notes say see page 165 33. What bone structures make up the hard palate? The nasal septum? 34. What is osteoporosis? In what segment of the population is it most common? 35. What is arthritis? Differentiate between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. 36. What are the 3 basic tenets (statements) of the cell theory? Name 2 scientists involved in the early development of the cell theory. Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann All living things are made of cells Cells only arise from pre-existing cells by division (not spontaneous generation) Cells are made of similar compounds with similar characteristics and biochemistries 37. Name 2 scientists known for their early observations of cells; called the “father of microscopy” and the “father of microbiology.”
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