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BMS107review - BMS107review McKinley OLoughlin Text Reading...

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BMS107review McKinley & O’Loughlin Text Reading Assignments: Chapters 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 21, 24 and maybe 22 Online Lectures: Integumentary System , Muscular System , Lymphatic System , Cardiovascular System: Blood REVIEW 1. Describe the structural characteristics of the 3 types of muscle. Which is voluntary? Type Structure Where found? S or SN? V or IV? Smooth Fibers are long, tapering strands that are uninucleate Walls of the digestive tract, blood vessels, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems Nonstriated Involuntary Cardiac Branching fibers with a centrally positioned nucleus and connecting intercalated discs Heart Striated Involuntary Skeletal Elongated, multinucleated fibers grouped into parallel bundles Attached to the skeleton Striated Voluntary 2. What function does the sarcoplasmic reticulum serve in muscle? SR stores calcium ions 3. What is the basic functional unit of skeletal muscle? What is a motor unit? A sarcomere is the functional, contractile unit of a muscle fiber A motor unit is a motor neuron plus the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates 4. How does an increase in intracellular calcium cause a muscle fiber to contract? Nerve impulses calcium in terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to troponin tropomyosin moves away from actin Myosin-actin bridge detaches actin power stroke recocks 5. Relative to cardiac muscle, does skeletal muscle fatigue easily? Cardiac muscle has less calcium but more mitochondria Skeletal muscle has no autorhythmicity 6. What can cause hypertrophy and atrophy of skeletal muscles? Atrophy: reduced stimulus can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and tone o Damage to the nervous system or injury Hypertrophy: exercise and repeated stimulus can lead to an increase in fiber size o Not the same as hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) 7. List 4 characteristics that differentiate red fibers from white fibers? Color Type Size An/aerobic Red Slow type I oxidative – endurance Small diameter Mitochondria White Fast type IIb glycolytic – intensity Large diameter Few 8. Define: ligament, tendon, muscle origin, muscle insertion. 9. Draw a cross section of a skeletal muscle and show the following: epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, fascicles, muscle fibers, myofibrils. 10. Show the relationship between the sarcomere, thin filament, thick filament, actin, myosin, Z-lines. 11. With regard to muscle contraction, what is a graded response? Due to the varying number of motor units involved in the contractions
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12. Which has a greater range of motion, a long muscle or a short muscle? What structural characteristic primarily determines the strength of a muscle? The strength of a muscle is determined by the cross-sectional area of diameter The “fatter” the muscle, the stronger the muscle 13. Define and know the location of the following: linea alba, external oblique aponeurosis, lumbodorsal fascia, diaphragm, tendo sheath, extensor retinaculum, flexor retinaculum, carpal tunnel.
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