exam 1 review

exam 1 review - BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES 107 HUMAN ANATOMY...

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BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES 107 – HUMAN ANATOMY REVIEW SHEET FOR FIRST LECTURE EXAM This review sheet is meant to be an aid in your studies for the exam. This does NOT necessarily include all of the information presented in lecture and lab for the exam. This is NOT a substitute for regular, diligent study of the course material. The following questions can be answered from one of the following sources: McKinley & O’Loughlin Text Reading Assignments: Chapters 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 & 9 Online Lectures: Introduction to Anatomy, Cells, Tissues, Skeletal System Bone List Handout REVIEW QUESTIONS : 1. Know all of the anatomical directional terms, body regions, and body cavities (quadrants & regions) which we discussed. a. Anatomical directional terms i. Superior: above or toward the head ii. Inferior: below or away from the head iii. Posterior/dorsal: toward the back iv. Anterior/ventral: toward the front v. Cranial: toward the head vi. Caudal: toward the tail vii.Superficial: near the surface viii. Deep: away from the surface ix. Medial: toward the midline x. Lateral: away from the midline xi. Proximal: closer to the trunk xii.Distal: further from the trunk xiii. Parietal: toward the wall/cavity xiv. Visceral: toward an organ/structure b. Body regions
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i. Head/cephalic: orbital (eye), nasal (nose), oral (mouth), mental (chin), cranial (braincase) ii. Neck/cervical iii. Thorax/thoracic: mammary (breast), sterna, axillary (armpit) iv. Abdominal v. Pelvic vi. Upper extremity: deltoid, brachium, cubital (elbow), antebrachium, carpal, hand vii.lower extremity: glutual, femoral, patellar, popliteal, crural, foot c. Body cavities i. Cranial: brain ii. Thoracic: chest iii. Pleurae: lungs iv. Mediastinum: between lungs v. Pericardial: heart vi. Abdominopelvic vii.Abdominal 1. Regions: umbilical, epigastric, hypogastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, right iliac, left iliac, right lumbar, left lumbdar 2. 4 quadrants viii. Pelvic 2. Describe the basic hierarchy of structure of the human body (from atoms to organism) and of what each level is comprised (eg. Molecules are made of atoms, etc.). 1. Chemicals: a. Atoms are the smallest units of matter. The most important atoms in the body are: CHON SIP CaFe: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Iodine, Phosphorus, Calcium and Iron (Fe)
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b. Molecules are composed of 2 or more atoms. Some important molecules include water, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and vitamins2. 2. Organelles- 3. Cells: a.Cells form the basic structure and function of the body. b. They are composed of smaller subunits called organelles ("little organs") that perform specific and vital functions within the cells. 4 Tissues: a. Tissues are comprised of collections of similar cells that perform a specialized function. b. There are 4 main types: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous 5Organs: a. Organs contain 2 or more tissue types that perform specialized functions b. The heart, for example, contains all 4 of the tissue types.
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